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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Proteins and Lipids

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 13Outline of Last Lecture I. Alcohol ReviewII. Proteina. Start of 2nd Exam Materialb. Structurec. Digestiond. Functionse. RequirementsOutline of Current Lecture I. Proteina. Requirements vs Intakeb. Sourcesc. Protein QualityII. VegetariansIII. Protein DeficiencyIV. LipidsCurrent LectureI. Proteina. Requirements vs. Intakei. Females: RDA – 44, Average in America - 70These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.ii. Males: RDA – 63, Average in America – 901. Rare to have protein deficiency unless you also have caloric deficiency2. Excess proteina. Energy or stored as fatb. Must remove Nitrogen from bodyc. N excreted by kidneyi. Diuretic1. Stimulates extra urine productionii. Also excretes Calcium1. Could lead to weakened bonesb. Sourcesi. High Protein1. Meat2. Fish3. Poultry4. Eggs5. Nuts6. Beansii. Some protein1. Milk2. Grains3. Vegetablesiii. Only food group that doesn’t really provide protein is fruit1. Hard to have diet that has enough calories without enough proteinc. Protein Qualityi. Essential Amino Acids1. Def: Cannot be synthesized by the human bodya. Must be obtained through the diet2. 9 (of 20) AA3. Complete Protein/High Qualitya. Def: has all 9 essential AA4. Limiting AAa. Def: stops protein synthesisii. Biological Value:1. (N retained)/(N consumed)a. If the protein has a high biological value, almost all of N will be retained (i.e. used to build hair, eyes, etc. in body)2. Measuring BV: If urine is low in N, animal retained much of the proteina. Chemical Scorei. Egg 100 (perfect protein)ii. Milk 93iii. Fish 76iv. Beef 74v. Soy 73vi. Whole Wheat 65vii. Peas 64viii. Peanuts 55ix. Gelatin 11b. Generally animal proteins higher quality than plant proteinsi. Vegetarians?II. Vegetarian Typesa. Typesi. Lacto-vegetarians1. Plants and milkii. Lacto-ovo-vegetarian1. Plants, milk and eggsiii. Vegans1. Plants onlyb. Animal Proteinsi. Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk1. High BV – complete2. High fat, High Sat. Fat3. High in Cholesterolc. Plant Proteinsi. Grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables1. Low BV – not complete2. Low Fat, Low Sat. Fat3. Low Cholesterol4. High Fiberd. How do Vegetarians (esp. Vegans) get around problem of incomplete proteins?i. Protein Complementarity1. Def: Combining two incomplete proteins such that each supplements the other’s limiting Amino Acida. Combination of two creates complete protein!b. Not very difficult2. Mixtures of plant proteinsa. Ex) Grains and legumesii. Must view vegetarian diet not as a restriction (i.e. cutting out meat) but rather focus on it as an expansion of the diet (i.e. eating ‘foreign’ plant proteins)III. Protein Deficiencya. ‘Protein Energy Malnutrition’i. Rarely have protein deficiency aloneii. Caused by insufficient food intake1. Not that a person is making ‘bad food choices,’ but a disruption of supplya. Povertyb. Warc. Droughtb. Two Typesi. Common Symptoms1. Emaciation/muscle wasting2. Infection3. Illness4. Weak, Exhaustedii. Marasmusiii. Kwashiorkor1. Edema (fluid)a. Water leaks out of blood stream and accumulates in guti. Bloated belliesIV. Lipidsa. Def: Soluble in organic solventsi. Hexane (gasoline)ii. Etheriii. NOT soluble in water!1. Wide definition…b. Three Typesi. Fatty Acids1. Long Carbon Chaina. 4-22 C2. Different Typesa. Saturated Fati. All C-C bonds are singleii. Animal Fatsiii. Tropical oils (palm and coconut)iv. Solid at room tempb. Monounsaturatedi. One C=C double bond1. One point of Unsaturationii. Vegetable Oils (Olive, canola)iii. Liquid at room temperature but cloudy at refrigerator tempc. Polyunsaturatedi. More than one C=C double bondii. Types1. Omega-6a. First double bond 6 C’s down from endb. Most vegetable oils (18:2)i. Corn oil, etc.2. Omega-3a. First double bond 3 C’s down from endi. EPA (20:5) - fishii. DHA (22:6) - fishiii. Alpha-linolenic(18:3) – plant sources (flax, soy,


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