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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Carbohydrates

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 7 Outline of Last Lecture I. Digestiona. Motilityb. Secretioni. Enzymesii. Bile – emulsifieriii. Biocarbonateiv. Acidv. FluidII. AbsorptionIII. Processa. Mouthi. Chewb. Stomachi. Storesc. Small Intestinei. Auxiliary Organs1. Pancreas2. Liver/gall bladderii. Villi1. Mucosad. Large Intestinei. Removes waterii. Bacteriae. RectumOutline of Current Lecture I. Carbohydratesa. Photosynthesisb. Complexityi. Simpleii. Complexc. CelluloseII. How do we handle CHO?Current LectureThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.I. Carbohydrate (CHO)a. Ends with –‘ose’b. General Formulai. CnH2nOnc. Photosynthesisi. CO2+Water+Solar Energy >>>>>>> C6H12O6 + O2ii. Store energy from sun in glucose (in the form of chemical bonds)III. Complexity (Least to Most Complex)a. Simple (Sugars)i. Monosaccharaides1. Glucose a. 6 Carbon (C), 6-sided ringb. Sources: Fruit, sweet corn, honey, blood stream2. Fructose a. 6 C, 5-sided ringb. Sources: Fruit, honeyii. Disaccharides1. Sucrosea. Glucose + Fructoseb. Sources: Table sugar, sugar cane, beets, maple syrup, fruit, honey2. Maltosea. Glucose + Glucoseb. Product of digestion of starch c. Product of Sprouting (Malting)d. Sources: Digestive track, trace amounts in beer, barley malt3. Lactosea. Glucose + Galactose (very similar to glucose)b. Milk Sugarc. Sources: Yogurt, other dairy productsd. Only carbohydrate in animal foods!b. Complex (Poly saccharides – ‘many sugars’)1. Starcha. Glucose polymerb. 3,000-4,000 glucose unitsc. Sources: grains, legumes, tubers (potatoes)d. Amylosei. Straight chaine. Amylopectini. Branched chain2. Dextrina. Intermediate breakdown of starchChlorophyllb. Shorter chains = sweeter3. Glycogena. How humans store Chob. Found in two placesi. Liver1. Maintains blood sugarii. Muscle1. Important in high-intensity exercise4. Cellulosea. Polysaccharide with a different chemical bondb. Dietary Fiberc. Def: indigestible polysaccharided. Need enzyme cellulase to break it down, which humans don’t have but ruminants (cows, sheep, camels, etc.) doe. Structural material found only in plantsf. Two Categoriesi. Insoluble1. Def: doesn’t dissolve in water2. Ex) hemicellulose, lignin (woody portion of plants, which isn’t actually a polysaccharide…)3. Sources: Whole grains, Vegetables, fruitswith edible seeds (strawberries, kiwi)ii. Soluble1. Def: Can dissolve in water (but still indigestible!)2. Ex) Pectin (jelly), carrageenan (ice creamthickener made of seaweed), guar gum3. Sources: Oats, barley, legumes, fruitsIV. How do we handle CHO?a. Digestioni. Starch1. Enzyme Amylase (salivary and pancreatic)a. Breaks down into glucoseii. Disaccharides1. Enzymes from (small) intestinal mucosaa. Sucrase – sucroseb. Lactase – lactosei. Lactose Intolerance1. Cause: lactase insufficiency2. Symptoms: bloating, cramping, diarrhea3. Most adults don’t produce much lactase4. One of the FEW genetic adaptations to agriculture: populations with long history of dairy (i.e. N. EU and E. Africa) can handle higher levels of


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