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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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NUTR SCI 132Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 11(Lecture 1 not important for exam)Lecture 2 What is the difference between the Scientific Method and ‘Everyday Method?’What are the steps in the Scientific Method?How is an Observational Case different than an Intervention and why is it important to know thedifference?Describe the observational studies discussed in class (3).What are confounders?Name at least 3 factors of human clinical trials that make them more costly and difficult to develop.Lecture 3 Which kind of study has the highest control? Lowest? Which is the best compromise (‘gold standard’)?Describe two groups of modern Hunter-gatherers: what did they eat and why?Did most hunter-gatherers eat more meat or plant foods?How long ago did agriculture develop?How does the processing of corn into tortillas affect its nutritional value?How were potatoes processed in Peru and why? Differentiate between Subsistence and Animal agricultureLecture 4 Did pre-industrial societies have enough to eat?Were food shortages frequent?How have humans adapted to dealing with food shortages?Contrast Ancient with Modern Diets. How do these differences affect causes of death?What is an essential nutrient?Describe the three nutritional states: deficiency, adequacy and toxicity. Is ‘more always better’ when it comes to nutrition?What is the RDA?Does the RDA normally underestimate or overestimate?Lecture 5 Name 3 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for managing weight.Name the 6 foods Dietary Guidelines recommend we reduce?What 6 grains should we increase?Name 5 types of ProteinsWhat is MyPlate.gov?Why is variety in the diet good?How can you use food labels?Lecture 6 Name the four processes of Digestion?Differentiate between digestion and absorption?What is an enzyme?Where does protein breakdown begin?Match The Following: Lecture 7 What are Auxiliary Organs in the process of digestion?How are Carbohydrates created?What is the generic chemical formula for a Carbohydrate?Name the two monosaccharaides discussed in class?A. Connects food from mouth to stomachB. Facilitates breakdown of sugarC. Random squeezing that mixes food with digestive juiceD. Secretes salivaE. Facilitates breakdown of milk sugarF. Produces disaccharidasesG. Water reabsorption occurs hereH. Rhythmic contraction of muscles down digestive trackI. Reservoir for foodJ. Facilitates breakdown of proteinK. Reservoir for bileL. Reservoir for eliminationM. Bile Produced hereN. Prevents stomach from digesting itselfO. Produces amylase, protease and lipase and sodium bicarbonateP. Increase surface area for AbsorptionQ. Sterilized food and denatures protein1. Stomach2. Liver 3. Gall Bladder4. Protease5. Mouth6. Mucus barrier7. Small Intestine8. Peristalsis9. Rectum10. Villi11. Lactase12. Hydrochloric Acid13. Large Intestine14. Sucrase15. Pancreas16. Segmentation/churning17. EsophagusHow do the structures of the two simple sugars differ from one another?Name and describe the shape of the (3) disaccharides.What is are amylose and amylopectin?What is glycogen and where is it found?What is Dextrin?What is cellulose?Can cellulose be found in animal products?What is the difference between soluble and insoluble fiber and what are examples of each type?What is Lactose Intolerance?Match the Following with their Sources:What are ruminants and how are they helpful in terms of nutrition?Lecture 8 Name 5 ‘solutions’ to lactose intoleranceDescribe the benefits of Insoluble Fiber (5)A. Yogurt, dairy productsB. Fruit, honeyC. Sweet corn, blood streamD. Digestive track, beer, barley maltE. Oats, barley, legumes, fruitF. Table Sugar, sugar cane & beets, maple syrupG. Whole grains, vegetables, fruits with edible seeds1. Soluble Fiber2. Insoluble Fiber3. Lactose 4. Sucrose5. Fructose 6. Maltose7. GlucoseDescribe the benefits of Soluble Fiber (2)What do we use CHO for?Describe what happens when you get hungry but don’t eat. How does this affect brain functioning?What does insulin do?Lecture 9 Can fat be turned into glucose?Define HypoglycemiaDefine HyperglycemiaCompare and Contrast type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Order the following from shortest glycemic curve to longest: complex carbohydrates, glucose, starch, legumes.Why is it better to eat an apple than drink a cup of apple juice?Lecture 10 Explain what it means to say sugar has a low nutrient density and high energy density?What is satiety?Why does sugar contribute to dental carries?Are ‘low carb diets’ good?Is Alcohol a nutrient?Describe the metabolic process of alcohol absorptionWhat are Congeners?How can wine decrease the risk of Heart Disease?How is alcohol content regulated?Why is alcohol absorption very quick?How is alcohol absorbed in the stomach and how does this vary by gender?Is everyone affected by alcohol in the same way? Explain using examples.How is one drink defined? How many ounces of beer, wine and hard liquor, respectively, constitute one drink?What is the legal limit for Intoxication? On average, how many drinks does it take a man and a woman, respectively, to get drunk in onehour?Lecture 11 What is an Inducible Enzyme and what effects does it have in terms of alcohol (3)?Why is Alcohol sometimes referred to as ‘liquid fat?’How can alcohol lower the risk of cardiovascular disease?How does alcohol affect Blood Pressure?What are polyphenols and how do they relate to alcohol?How much alcohol leads to a greater risk of cancer?When and how much is it safe for mothers to drink during pregnancy?How does Fetal Alcohol Syndrome affect the brain?Is everyone at the same risk for developing alcohol addiction?Name 5 consequences of alcoholismANSWERSLecture 2 (September 5)What is the difference between the Scientific Method and ‘Everyday Method?’Everyday uses Anecdotal evidence, which cannot be generalized to a populationWhat are the steps in the Scientific Method?Ask a questionFormulate HypothesisTest HypothesisConduct ExperimentEvaluate OutcomeConfirm or reject HypothesisIf rejected, reformulate hypothesis and start againHow is an Observational Case different than an Intervention and why is it important to know thedifference?In observational case, experimenter only observes what is occurring and does not manipulate a variable. Correlation does not equal causation. Describe the observational studies discussed in class (3).Epidemiological – Population conducts on itselfCase Study – specific Case studiedCase Control – match ‘cases’ with ‘controls’What are


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