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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Physiology for Nutrition

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Dietary Guidelines for Americansa. Foods and food compounds to increase/decreaseII. MyPlate.govIII. Food LabelsOutline of Current Lecture: Physiology for NutritionI. How to study for examII. Process of Digestiona. Motility, secretion, digestion, absorptionb. Following the path of food through the gutCurrent LectureI. How can I prepare for the exam?a. Use Active Study Methodsi. Take good notes (don’t sit in lecture passively)ii. Use book to look up answers to homework questions (don’t read passively)1. Learn material better and quicker!iii. Do things in Timely fashion1. Don’t cram three days before the examiv. Frequent Contact with Materials1. Divide 2 hours of studying between several classes (smaller sessions)b. Processi. Read or skim bookThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.ii. Take notes – outline form1. Expand notesiii. Online Homeworkiv. Within 1-3 days, do study questionsv. Short frequent reviewsvi. Within 1 week of exam, take old examsII. Digestiona. Four Processesi. Motility1. Peristalsisa. Moves food through digestive track (rhythmic contraction of muscles)2. Segmentationa. Mixes food with digestive juices (random squeezing) ii. Secretion1. Chemicalsiii. Digestion1. Breaking down of large particles into smalliv. Absorption1. Transport nutrients from gut (Gastro-Intestinal tract, GI tract) into blood streamb. Following the path of food through the guti. Mouth1. Chewinga. Mechanical break-down of food2. Secretion a. Salivai. Lubricates food, makes food easier to swallowb. Amylasei. Enzyme 1. Ends with -ase2. Substrate: Amylose – starch3. A type of proteina. Complicated structureb. Specific, one function4. Facilitates reactionsii. Esophagus1. Connects food from mouth to stomach2. Peristalsisa. Squeezes food into stomachiii. Stomach1. Reservoir for slow release of food into small intestine2. Churninga. Muscles + mix with secretion3. Acida. Hydrochloric acidi. Sterilizesii. Denatures proteinb. Proteasei. Enzymeii. Protein digestion (begun here, continued in small intestine)4. Question: why doesn’t stomach digest itself?a. Mucus barrierb. Ulcer – holes burning in stomachi. Heliobacter causes thisii. Stress produces more acid (secondary contributor)iv. Small Intestine1. Broken down into:a. Duodenumb. Jejunumc. Ilium2. 12-18ft of tubing!3. Peristalsis4. Segmentation – mix food with secretions5. Secretionsa. Fluid (7-9 L/day!)b. From Pancreas i. Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)1. Neutralizes stomach acidii. Amylase – Starchiii. Protease – Proteiniv. Lipase – Lipidc. Secretions from Liver (Gall Bladder – reservoir for secretions)i. Bile1. Emulsifiera. Allows fat to stay suspended in water (by breaking into small pieces,makes for easier digestion – increased surface oil)d. Mucosai. Made in small intestine1. Disaccharidases a. Sucrose – sucroseb. Lactase – lactose6. Digestion7. Absorptiona. Villii. Increase surface area for efficient Absorptionii. Water-soluble absorbed into Blood streamiii. Fat- Soluble encapsulated into lymphatic systemv. Large Intestine (Colon)1. Water reabsorption2. Some nutrient absorption3. Bacterial populationa. Important, but still being studied furthervi. Rectum1. Reservoir for


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