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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Final Exam Study Guide

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NUTR SCI 132Exam # 4 Study Guide Lectures: 32-40Lecture 32Match the following stages with the corresponding status of the Baby’s development.Match the following stages with the recommended weight gain of normal weight mothers.Why is it important for pregnant women to focus on nutrition and which nutrients are most critical during this time?Which pregnant women are at the greatest risk of having babies with birth defect (as a result of nutrition)?Why do pregnant women often get constipated?Lecture 33Name at least 3 benefits for the mother to breast feeding (both in the short and long term) Describe at least 3 benefits of breast-feeding for the baby.What are the recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics for infant nutrition? World Health Organization?Describe the demographics of mothers least likely to breast feedWhat are the common barriers to breastfeeding in the US?Describe the three stages of Lactogenesis.Describe the general nutrition guidelines for moms who breastfeedWhat are the guidelines for feeding babies 6-12 months?1. First Trimester 2. Second Trimester 3. Third Trimester A. Heart BeatsB. Weighs 7-8lbsC. Organs grow and matureA. ¾ to 1lb per weekB. 25 – 35lbs have been gainedC. 2 – 4 lbs1. First Trimester 2. Second Trimester 3. Third TrimesterWhat is the ‘window for tolerance’ of allergies?What are the cues for developmental readiness of child for solid foods?Lecture 35What are phytonutrients?Do high supplemental doses of beta-carotene have the same effect of decreasing cancer risk as diets richin Fruits and Vegetables? What is Carcinogenesis? What are carcinogens?Describe the 3-stage model of carcinogenesis.What are Benign, Malignant, Invasive and Metastatic tumors?How does estrogen relate to cancer?Lecture 36What are the challenges to food safety today?What were the ‘cures’ of Tuberculosis and Typhoid/Cholera, respectively?What is the difference between foodborne Infections and Foodborne toxins?Match the following Foodborne Infections and toxins with their corresponding description.Describe the two strategies for preventing Foodborne illnesses.How should one thaw meats?Lecture 37Why is BPA a harmful added chemical?What is the situation with Pesticide residues in conventional produce?A. Passed person-to-person, non-fatalB. Can kill young, healthy people, Mammalian gutC. Home-canned foods are a dangerD. Do not prepare foods with cuts on your hands!E. Diarrhea, cramping, fever, guts of mammalsF. Cross-contamination/undercooking; guts of birdsG. Infants, elderly, pregnant most susceptible1. Campylobacter 2. Norwalk-like Virus 3. Salmonella 4. E. Coli 5. Listeria 6. Botulism 7. StaphylococcusWhat is Organic Produce?What are the Benefits of Organic Food? Is it more nutritional?What are the effects of feeding tiny antibiotic doses in Agriculture Production?Lecture 38What is a carbon footprint?Describe (at least 3) social, economic or nutritional benefits of eating locally.What are the benefits of Sustainable Agriculture for the environment?Lecture 39 What are the ‘cons’ of animal food consumption in terms of the environment?What are the ‘Pros’ of Animal food consumption in terms of the environment?Name two other ways of lessening your environmental impact, besides eating locally, supporting sustainable agriculture and being conscientious about animal consumption.Lecture 40What forces drive our nutrition decisions?Describe some techniques for bridging the gap between knowledge of nutrition and right action?ANSWERSLecture 32Match the following stages with the corresponding status of the Baby’s development.Match the following stages with the recommended weight gain of normal weight mothers.4. First Trimester - A5. Second Trimester - C6. Third Trimester - BD. Heart BeatsE. Weighs 7-8lbsF. Organs grow and matureD. ¾ to 1lb per weekE. 25 – 35lbs have been gainedF. 2 – 4 lbs4. First Trimester - C5. Second Trimester - A6. Third Trimester - BWhy is it important for pregnant women to focus on nutrition and which nutrients are most critical during this time?Folic Acid – deficiencies increase risk of nueral tube defect of baby (spina bifida)Iron – (RDA doubles) low birth weight, premature birth and early fetal death, Anemia in motherCalcium – 50% increase, tricky nutrient to get enough of as is (without increased needs)Which pregnant women are at the greatest risk of having babies with birth defect (as a result of nutrition)?PovertyObesityPoor, absent, late prenatal careDrug, alcohol, tobacco usePicaPrenatal dieting or fasting for more than 12 hours (or inadequate CHO)Inadequate weight gainExcessive Caffeine (>2 cups coffee/day, >4 cups soft drink)Why do pregnant women often get constipated?Peristalsis weakened. Exercise, fiber-rich foods and fluid helps.Lecture 33Name at least 3 benefits for the mother to breast feeding (both in the short and long term) Uterine contraction, decreased bleedingHormonal response: calming, helps mother focus on/care for babySuppression of ovulationWeight Loss (? High caloric need…)Reduced risk of breast and ovarian cancersType 2 DiabetesDescribe at least 3 benefits of breast-feeding for the baby.Well tolerated and easily digested (minerals bioavailable)Human milk matches needs for nutrition and fluid (composition changes to meet the needs of growing infant.Disease protection: ear, lower respiratory, GI, Asthma, dermatitis, eczemaReduces the risk of: SIDS, Obesity, Type 1 and 2 Diabetes, childhood leukemiaIncreases liking for a greater variety of foodsWhat are the recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics for infant nutrition? World Health Organization?American: 6 mo. exclusively breast-fed, continue to 1 year, longer as mutually desiredWorld Health: 6 mo. exclusively breast-fed, continue to 2 years, longer as mutually desiredDescribe the demographics of mothers least likely to breast feedYoungerLess EducationMore ChildrenUnmarriedLess Job AutonomyNot previously breastfedWhat are the common barriers to breastfeeding in the US?Societal IssuesPublic Opinion PollsLack of “mothering the mother”Laws specifically protecting the right to breastfeed in public and private settingsDescribe the three stages of Lactogenesis.Lactogenesis I: last trimester/first 1-5 days, limited milk production: Colostrum (yellow)Lactogenesis II: 2-5 days postpartum, copious milk secretionLactogenesis III: Composition changes to accommodate baby’s need, baby must suck correctly tocontinue stimulating milk


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