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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Carbohydrates, Diabetes & Glycemic Effect

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PSYCH 210 Lecture 9 Outline of Last Lecture I. Lactosea. Lactaseb. AncestryII. Fibera. Soluble & Insolublei. BenefitsIII. Blood Sugara. Insulin lowersb. Glucagon raises i. Liver glycogenOutline of Current Lecture I. Blood Sugara. Diabetesi. Type 1ii. Type 2II. Glycemic Effecta. GraphIII. Processinga. Effects of Sugar on bodyb. Nutrient DensityCurrent LectureI. Blood Sugara. Remember: Can’t turn fat into glucose (for brain to use)b. (Reactive) Hypoglycemiai. Too much insulin produced in response to a meal so that blood sugar dips too lowc. Hyperglycemia - Diabetesi. Blood sugar stays high after meal These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.d. Diabetesi. Both types have same Problem (High Blood Sugar) but different causes and treatmentii. Type 11. Commonly referred to as “Juvenile onset” (outdated term!)2. Cause: Failure of pancreas to produce insulin3. Sugar stays in blood, clogs veins but doesn’t nourish cellsa. Excessive hungerb. Excessive thirstc. Excessive urination4. Fatal without treatment5. Treatment: Insulin injectionsa. Effective but inconvenient 6. 10% of Americans with diabetes have Type 1iii. Type 21. Named “Adult Onset” (but you can get it at really any age now)2. Insulin resistance developed (body cells ignore Insulin call to take up glucose because they become insensitive)3. Strong relationship with Obesity4. Treatment: Weight Lossa. Occasionally Insulin Injections5. Half the people who have Type 2 don’t know they do! (undiagnosed cases)II. Glycemic Effecta. Different Carbohydrates have different effects on blood sugarb. Graph – Glycemic Effect1. Note: Legumes have longest curve because they actually interfere with amylase!2. What is the benefit of a longer Glycemic curve?a. You spend more time in the ‘happy zone!’i. Don’t get hungry (or grumpy, uncoordinated, etc.) as quicklyb. Less stressful on bodyc. Easier for management of Type 1 Diabetes (and also better for Type 2)III. Processinga. Of Fruit: Juicing takes out fiberb. Of Wheat: Enrichment adds back only some of the vitamins and minerals and notany fiberc. Refined Sugar (white sugar)i. Sugar cane & sugar beets >>> 100% Sucroseii. Stripped Juice >>> Glucose, fructose, sucrose (but still 100% sugar)iii. Average American eats 96lbs of sugar/year!1. 25-28% of calories come from sugar!iv. Effects of Sugar 1. Decreases nutrient density of diet a. Def: Relationship between nutrients and calories of food2. Added sugars vs. naturally occurring sugarsa. Chemically identical b. Natural sugars have not been refined to take out all the nutrients!i. Fruits (and vegetables) amongst highest nutrient density


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