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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Sugar and Alcohol

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 10 Outline of Last Lecture I. Blood Sugara. Diabetesi. Type 1ii. Type 2II. Glycemic Effecta. GraphIII. Processinga. Effects of Sugar on bodyb. Nutrient DensityOutline of Current Lecture I. Sugar Continueda. Low Nutrient Densityb. High Energy Densityc. Dental Carriesd. Weight Lossi. ‘Low Carb Diet’II. Alcohola. Metabolic Process of Absorptionb. Congenersc. Different rates of Absorptioni. Populationsii. Gender These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.d. What is one drink?i. BACCurrent LectureI. Sugara. Added Sugarsi. Low Nutrient Density1. Leads to less than optimal nutrient intakeb. Naturally Occurring Sugarsi. Berries, fruit, vegetables1. Among highest Nutrient Density foods!c. The less added sugar, the betterd. Sugar has a high Energy Densityi. Def: Calories compared to volume/weightii. Satiety1. Def: Sense of fullness or satisfaction after a meal2. Because sugar has a high Energy Density, when you eat it, you consume more calories but feel less full than if you ate the same amount of another food with a lower Energy Densityiii. Sugar Contributes to higher energy intake1. Contributes to weight gaina. ‘Obesity Epidemic’ in America (Causes):i. Decreased energy Expenditureii. Increased Consumption1. Partly due to sugar consumptione. Dental cariesi. Cavities (holes in teeth)ii. CHO in mouth converted into acid by bacteria and acid dissolves tooth enamel1. All CHO will do this, BUT factors that contribute to more dissolving:a. Stickiness (sugary foods = stickier)b. Frequency (e.g. sugary soft drinks)f. Weight Lossi. Gluconeogenesis1. Loss of lean massa. Metabolism Decreasesi. Counterproductive; makes it harder and harder to lose weightii. ‘Low Carb Diet’1. Means different things to different peoplea. Decrease sugars, refined CHO, sweeteners, sodas, white flouri. Good! Great weight loss strategy (everyone should try to do this anyway)b. Decreasing complex CHO, vegetables, fruitsi. NOT a good idea to cut out!!ii. Biggest predictor of long-term weight loss is how much of these foods you eat!c. Whole grains, Legumesi. Try not to cut these either, but okay if necessary (asa last resort)II. Alcohol (ethanol)a. The only non-nutrient we consume that contains caloriesi. Remember Def Nutrient: Specific chemical that is essential or necessary (we cannot live without)1. We can live without Alcoholb. Metabolic Productsi. Ethanol1. Toxic, must be broken downii. Acetaldehyde1. Oxidative damage2. Flushingiii. Acetate1. Burned or stored as fatc. Congenersi. Def: Non-alcoholic part(s) of alcoholic beverages1. Beera. Hopsb. Maltosec. Asbestosd. Cobalt*2. Winea. Resveratroli. Decreases risk of Heart Disease when consumed in moderation3. Hard Liquora. Contaminantsb. Asbestosii. *Nobody responsible for safety of alcoholic beverages1. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms:a. Regulates for alcohol content only (not congeners, etc.)d. Absorptioni. Extremely efficient (quick)1. No Digestion required2. –OH Highly (water) solubleii. Stomach and Small intestine1. Enzyme metabolizes ethanol >>> acetaldehydea. Males metabolize 25% of ethanolb. Females metabolize only 5% of ethanoli. Women absorb 20% more alcohol in bloodstream than men per drinkiii. Food slows absorptioniv. Differential Rates of Metabolism 1. Ethanol >>> Acetaldehyde >>> Acetatea. Different enzymes responsible for breakdown from each stepb. Different versions of enzymes for each stepi. Faster vs. Slower2. African Americansa. Often have faster version of enzyme for breakdown of Ethanolb. Don’t experience effects of being drunk3. Native Americansa. Often have slower version for breakdown of Ethanolb. Longer exposure to alcohol (good part lingers longer)4. Asiansa. Enzyme for breakdown of Acetaldehyde often slower versionb. Effects of hangover symptoms increasedi. Often drink less because experience is unpleasant5. Gender Differencesa. Women more sensitivei. Absorb 20% more per drinkii. Less lean mass1. Alcohol excluded from fat (water soluble)2. Does not absorb in fata. Higher Concentration in Lean Massb. Higher BACe. How much is one drink?i. 15g ethanol1. 12oz beer2. 5oz wine3. 1oz hard liquorii. People not good at estimating volume!1. Underestimate >>> drink more than they think they are2. Containers often hold more than one drinkiii. Legal Limit for intoxication1. 0.08% Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)a. Average Man: 4 drinks/1hrb. Average Women: 3 drinks/1hri. Takes much longer to clear alcohol than it took to get to that


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