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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Red Blood Cells and Bones

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 27 Outline of Last Lecture I. Tissue Synthesisa. Preservationb. Function RepairII. Specific VitaminsIII. AntioxidantsOutline of Current Lecture I. Red Blood Cellsa. Anemiab. Ironc. Vitamin KII. Energy Releasea. B Vitaminsb. Bone Healthi. Remodelingii. CalciumCurrent LectureI. Red Blood Cellsa. Demand many nutrientsb. Nutritional Anemiasi. Not enough red blood cells1. Not enough Oxygen transport to cellsa. Decreased Energyii. Macrocytic1. Folate and B-122. B-6iii. Microcytic1. Ironc. IronThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.i. World’s most common mineral deficiencyii. Cannot make hemoglobin without Ironiii. Pro-oxidant1. Can facilitate Oxidative damagea. Keep bound up to storage protein: ferritin2. Also most common toxicitya. Leading cause of childhood poisoning deathi. Maternal supplementsiv. Transport1. Transferrinv. Iron Storage1. Therefore, anemia is caused from a long period of deprivation!vi. Good Status1. Non-symptomatic2. Adequate hemoglobin3. Adequate ferritinvii. Increased Needs1. Pre-menopausal women2. Pregnancya. Needs double!viii. Factors that affect absorption1. Vitamin C increases absorption of plant iron2. Iron and Ca compete for absorptiona. Caution with supplementsd. Vitamin Ki. Helps Blood clottingii. Deficiency1. Slow clottingiii. Anti-coagulants for those at risk of heart attack1. Warfarin or Coumadin interfere with Vitamin K’s jobII. Energy Release (Metabolism)a. B Vitaminsi. Water-solubleii. Deficiency1. Everything affected2. Cluster (found in similar food sources)3. Difficult to diagnosea. Generalized symptomsi. Headachesii. Insomniaiii. Irritability4. Best treated by whole foodsiii. Phosphorus1. Energy currencya. ADP to ATPi. Phosphorus-based compoundsiv. Niacin1. Deficiencya. Widespread in USb. Name: Pellagrai. 4 D’s1. Dermatitis – sensitive to sunlight (rash)2. Diarrhea3. Dementia4. Deathii. 3 M’s (Diet of poor in South)1. Meat – fat of pork 2. Meal (corn)3. Molassesc. Worldwidei. Population living on corn1. EXCEPT where treated with rock lime! (Calcium Carbonate)a. Increases bioavailability2. High Dosesa. Used therapeuticallyi. Raise HDLb. Do not try at home!i. Can cause flushingii. Liver damagev. Riboflavin1. (Coenzyme)2. Deficiency rarevi. Pantothenic Acid1. Deficiency rarea. Prison/famine2. Name comes from Greek “panothen” – everywherevii. Thiamin1. Deficiencya. Name: Beri-beri (“I can’t, I can’t”)i. Symptoms1. Fatigue2. Loss of Motivationb. Diet Causei. Poor populations living off:1. White race2. No (few) animal productsii. Alcoholicsviii. Biotin1. Deficiency rareix. Chromium1. Increases Insulin bindingx. Iodine1. Thyroxinea. Raises Basal Metabolic Rate2. Deficiencya. GoiterIII. Bone Healtha. Living cellsb. Growthi. Starts as cartilage1. Protein2. Replaced by Hydroxyapatiteii. Start at epiphyseal plates (end of bones)1. Close off once finished growingc. Remodelingi. Occurs throughout lifespanii. Osteoblasts1. Build bonea. Lay down protein matrix and mineraliii. Osteoclasts1. Dissolve bone and matrixa. Release mineral from bone into bloodiv. Why Remodel?1. Allows bone to reshape itselfa. Adapt to stressesi. A lot more like muscles than you think!2. Allows bone to heal3. Allows bone to be a Ca reservoird. Calcium i. More than any other micronutrient1. Hydroxyapatiteii. Functions1. Muscle contractions2. Blood Clotting3. Component of enzymesiii. Transport1. Blood streama. Blood Ca tightly regulatedi. Doesn’t fluctuate by more than +/- 3%ii. Hormones2. Low intake of Caa. Decreases blood Cab. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)i. Acts on kidney1. Activates Vitamin D precursor2. Vitamin D acts on mucosa to increase Ca absorption3. Efficiency of absorptiona. Depends on Intakei. High intake: ¼ Ca absorbedii. Low intake ½ Ca


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