UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Phytonutrients and Carcinogenesis (4 pages)

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Phytonutrients and Carcinogenesis

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Phytonutrients and Carcinogenesis


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Lecture Note
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Nutrsci 132 - Nutrition Today
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NUTR SCI Lecture 35 Outline of Last Lecture I Breastfeeding and Nutrition a Mom b Infant II Complementary foods transition a Hot topics Outline of Current Lecture I Phytonutrients a Definition II Carcinogenesis a Carcinogens b 3 stage model III Phytonutrients as anti carcinogens Current Lecture I Phytonutrients a Non nutrients found in plants i Don t develop deficiencies without them ii Help in cancer prevention iii Association between high F V intake and decreased cancer 1 F V high in nutrient density 2 Low in energy density 3 Low in fat and saturated fat 4 Anti oxidant a Oxidative damage to DNA b Vitamin C and E c Beta carotene i High supplemental doses do not have the same effect in decreasing cancer as diet rich in F V These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute 1 F V have many more things besides Betacarotene Phytonutrients 2 10 000 chemicals in a tomato II Carcinogenesis a Def The process by which cancer develops b Carcinogens i Def chemicals that damage DNA and cause cancer ii Working with carcinogens in job esp before better safety regulations show clusters of particular cancers caused by exposure on the job 1 Vinyl chloride iii Food carcinogens 1 Introduced 2 Graph a General trend slow increase b Lung cancer in women increased when smoking became popular c Stomach cancer decreased Food supply safer than it used to be i Spoiled moldy food carcinogenic ii Ex Nitrates 1 Less exposure now 2 Ex Cured meats beer iii Ex Mold aflatoxin 1 Lower rates of liver cancer here than in Africa 3 Naturally Occuring a Sassafras Tea contains carcinogens c 3 stage model of carcinogenesis i Normal cell 1 Initiation a Something damages DNA mutation b Ex Carcinogen oxidative damage radiation ii Initiated Cell 1 Occurs 1 million times day a Not all mutations lead to cancer iii Promotion 1 More DNA damage 2 Multiple instances of damage iv Cancer cell 1 Abnormal 2 Single cancer cell not that dangerous v Progression 1 Single cancer cell to multiple cells III a Tumor i Takes 109 cancer cells to create detectable sized tumor ii Can continue to evolve worsen 2 Benign Tumor a Non cancerous 3 Malignant Tumor Cancer a Invasive b Metastatic i Can detach individual cells go into blood stream and plant itself like seed to other parts of body to create new tumors Phytonutrients as Anti carcinogens a Blocking Action i Stop DNA damage 1 Work on detoxification enzymes 2 Plant chemicals increase these enzymes a Greater capacity for detoxification b Ex Sulforaphane i Broccoli cabbage ii Cabbage Family 1 Cabbage 2 Broccoli 3 Cauliflower 4 Kale 5 Collard Greens 6 Turnips c Ex Phenols i Grapefruit juice b Pro carcinogens i Become metabolized as carcinogens 1 Anti carcinogens can block this ii Anti hormones 1 Receptors on cell interact with hormones 2 Estrogen will promote growth of cancer if it is a hormone sensitive cancer e g breast cervical a Decreased exposure blood levels to Estrogen i Genistein found in soy beans blockades receptor ii Indoles in cabbage iii Lignams from lignin iii Chemicals that affect cancer growth Rat Study rat chow 1 Control 97 of animals got cancer 2 Adding in Limonene citrus flavor 76 of animals 3 Geraniol ginger grapes berries vegetables 72 4 B ionene carrots ginger raspberries 24 a Tumor growth factor c Phytonutrients and Other Diseases i Helps osteoporosis ii Heart disease 1 Lower LDL d We have adaptation to high intakes of F V i Chemical Ecology 1 Plants aren t mobile a Chemical defense to avoid being eaten b Use chemicals to attract pollinators 2 Plants don t have immune systems a Chemical defense against infection ii In foods 1 Aromas 2 Flavors a Put these in food intentionally b Better for us iii Increasing Phytonutrients in diet 1 Increase F V legumes whole grains spices herbs

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