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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Phytonutrients and Carcinogenesis

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NUTR SCI Lecture 35 Outline of Last Lecture I. Breastfeeding and Nutritiona. Momb. InfantII. Complementary foods transitiona. Hot topicsOutline of Current Lecture I. Phytonutrientsa. DefinitionII. Carcinogenesisa. Carcinogensb. 3-stage modelIII. Phytonutrients as anti-carcinogensCurrent LectureI. Phytonutrientsa. Non-nutrients found in plantsi. Don’t develop deficiencies without themii. Help in cancer preventioniii. Association between high F/V intake and decreased cancer1. F/V high in nutrient density2. Low in energy density3. Low in fat and saturated fat4. Anti-oxidanta. Oxidative >> damage to DNAb. Vitamin C and Ec. Beta-carotenei. High supplemental doses do not have the same effect in decreasing cancer as diet rich in F/VThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.1. F/V have many more things besides Beta-carotene… (Phytonutrients)2. 10,000 chemicals in a tomato!II. Carcinogenesisa. Def: The process by which cancer developsb. Carcinogensi. Def: chemicals that damage DNA and cause cancerii. Working with carcinogens in job (esp. before better safety regulations) show clusters of particular cancers (caused by exposure on the job)1. Vinyl chlorideiii. Food carcinogens1. Introduced2. Grapha. General trend: slow increaseb. Lung cancer in women increased when smoking became popularc. Stomach cancer decreased – Food supply safer than it usedto bei. Spoiled, moldy food (carcinogenic)ii. Ex) Nitrates1. Less exposure now2. Ex) Cured meats, beeriii. Ex) Mold aflatoxin1. Lower rates of liver cancer here than in Africa3. Naturally Occuringa. Sassafras Tea – contains carcinogens! c. 3-stage model of carcinogenesisi. Normal cell1. Initiationa. Something damages DNA (mutation)b. Ex) Carcinogen, oxidative damage, radiationii. Initiated Cell1. Occurs 1 million times/daya. Not all mutations lead to cancer!iii. Promotion1. More DNA damage2. Multiple instances of damage iv. Cancer cell1. Abnormal2. Single cancer cell not that dangerousv. Progression1. Single cancer cell to multiple cellsa. Tumori. Takes 109 cancer cells to create detectable-sized tumorii. Can continue to evolve (worsen)2. Benign Tumora. Non-cancerous 3. Malignant Tumor (Cancer)a. Invasiveb. Metastatici. Can detach individual cells, go into blood stream and plant itself like seed to other parts of body to create new tumorsIII. Phytonutrients as Anti-carcinogensa. Blocking Actioni. Stop DNA damage1. Work on detoxification enzymes2. Plant chemicals increase these enzymesa. Greater capacity for detoxificationb. Ex) Sulforaphanei. Broccoli/cabbageii. Cabbage Family:1. Cabbage2. Broccoli3. Cauliflower4. Kale5. Collard Greens6. Turnipsc. Ex) Phenolsi. Grapefruit juiceb. Pro-carcinogensi. Become metabolized as carcinogens1. Anti-carcinogens can block thisii. Anti-hormones1. Receptors on cell interact with hormones2. Estrogen will promote growth of cancer if it is a hormone-sensitivecancer (e.g. breast, cervical)a. Decreased exposure (blood levels) to Estrogeni. Genistein (found in soy beans) blockades receptorii. Indoles in cabbageiii. Lignams (from lignin)iii. Chemicals that affect cancer growth: Rat Study (rat chow)1. Control – 97% of animals got cancer2. Adding in Limonene (citrus flavor) – 76% of animals3. Geraniol (ginger, grapes, berries, vegetables) – 72%4. B-ionene (carrots, ginger, raspberries) – 24%a. Tumor growth factor?c. Phytonutrients and Other Diseasesi. Helps osteoporosisii. Heart disease1. Lower LDLd. We have adaptation to high intakes of F/Vi. Chemical Ecology1. Plants aren’t mobilea. Chemical defense to avoid being eatenb. Use chemicals to attract pollinators2. Plants don’t have immune systemsa. Chemical defense against infectionii. In foods1. Aromas2. Flavorsa. Put these in food intentionally!b. Better for usiii. Increasing Phytonutrients in diet1. Increase F/V, legumes, whole grains, spices,


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