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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Vitamin and Mineral Sources

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 29 Outline of Last Lecture I. Bone Healtha. Calciumb. Phosphorusc. Vitamin Dd. Vitamin Ke. OsteoporosisOutline of Current Lecture I. Micronutrientsa. Sourcesi. Food Sourcesii. Supplementsiii. Vitamins1. Fat Soluble2. Water SolubleCurrent LectureI. Micronutrientsa. Sourcesi. Nutrient dense foods best1. Whole foods2. Processing removes nutrients3. Balanced intakeThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.4. Low toxicity riskii. Supplements1. Never replace food2. Can’t balance intake3. Few trace minerals4. Toxicity risk5. Competition for absorptionb. Food sourcesi. Widespread distribution1. Pantothenic acid2. Biotin 3. Phosphorus4. Some B-vitaminsii. Limited Distribution1. Iron2. Calcium3. B-12c. Vitamin Sourcesi. Two Ways1. Provitamin a. Precursor, can activate so it’s just as good as active form2. Active formii. Ex)1. Vitamin A active form = Retinola. Precursors: Carotenoids2. Niacin = Active Forma. Precursor: Tryptophaniii. Fat Soluble (A, D, E, K)1. Vitamin A (Retinol)a. Milk, liverb. Provitamin – B-carotenei. Orange/Yellow Fruits/Vegetablesii. Dark green leafy Vegetables2. Vitamin Da. We can synthesize it! (sometimes)i. Steroid Hormoneii. Synthesize in skin from cholesterol using UV light1. “15 minutes hands/face”a. Latitude and season affects this!b. Time of dayc. Climate – air qualityd. Sun exposuree. Skin pigmentationb. Storagei. Cannot store enough Vitamin D to get through winter herec. Food Sources Limitedi. Fish oilsii. Milkiii. Fortified foods (soy milk, cereals)d. Excessive Exposure to UV – Skin Canceri. Basal and Squamous Cell1. Easy to remove2. Farmers, Construction workersii. Melanoma1. Cancer to melanocytes – melanin (pigment-containing cells)a. Dangerous2. Acute sun burnsa. 3 significant sun burns thoroughly life can significantly increase risk!!3. Vitamin Ea. Whole grainsi. Wheat germb. Seed Oilsc. Processing Removes Vitamin Ei. Exposure to air reduces its antioxidant power4. Vitamin Ka. Green Leafy Vegetables (Kale, Spinach)iv. Water Soluble (B and C)1. Vitamin Ca. Fruits and Vegetablesi. Some more, some less2. B-Vitaminsa. Whole grains and proteinsi. Thiamin and Niacin1. Lost in processing (grains)ii. Riboflavin1. Milk, dark leafy greensiii. Folate (“folium” >> foliage)1. Leafy Vegetables2. Orange Juiceiv. Vitamin B-121. Foods of animal origina. Meat, fish, poultryb. Milk2. Intrinsic Factora. Formed in stomach, secreted into foodb. Production decreases in elderly3. Stores well (unusual)a. Can go a year or two if have good stores!4. Vegansa. Fortified foodsi. Soy milkii. Cerealsiii. Supplementv. “Everywhere”1. Pantothenic Acid2. Biotin3. Mineralsa. Sources (General)i. Whole Grainsii. Vegetablesiii. Proteinsiv. Dairyv. Fruitsvi. Saltb. Sodiumi. Saltii. Processing Increases Sodium1. Cheap, strong seasoning people likeiii. Raises Blood Pressureiv. Outside Cellsc. Chloridei. Saltd. Potassiumi. Fruits/Vegetablesii. Lowers Blood Pressureiii. Inside Cellsiv. Vitamin K1. Most Fruits/Vegetablese. Calciumi. Milk1. Rich sources2. Well absorbed3. Fat and sugar displace


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