New version page

UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Proteins

Type: Lecture Note
Pages: 4
Documents in this Course
Load more

This preview shows page 1 out of 4 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 4 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 12Outline of Last Lecture I. Health Impactsa. Inducible Enzymei. Free Radicalsb. Liquid Fatc. Holiday Heartd. Polyphenolse. Fetal Alcohol Syndromef. Cancer Riskg. AlcoholismOutline of Current Lecture I. Alcohol ReviewII. Proteina. Start of 2nd Exam MaterialCurrent LectureI. Alcohol Review: Health Impactsa. Benefit to Heart Disease (raises HDL)b. Red wine reduces blood clottingc. Raises Blood Pressured. Increased risk of cancere. Increase weightThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.f. Decrease athletic performanceg. Fetal Alcohol Syndromeh. AddictionII. Proteina. Second macronutrient (Carbohydrate mostly used as fuel source)b. Structurei. Amino Acids1. 20 typesa. Different side chains2. Composed of C, H, 0, N, sometimes sulfura. Nitrogen distinguishes protein from other micronutrientsii. Peptide bond combines two amino acids1. Def Peptide: short chain of Amino Acidsa. Ex) Insuliniii. Proteins1. 100s or thousands of amino acids long!2. Genes specify proteinsa. Sequence extremely important! If incorrect, the protein will not be what it should be and will not do its job3. Distinguished by sequence in DNAa. Creates structure4. Complex moleculesc. Digestioni. Stomach acid1. Denatures proteina. Def: changes shape of proteini. Neutralizes/overwhelms structure of protein into linear sequenceii. Exposes the individual amino acids to enzymes to be broken downii. Protease1. Small Intestinea. Protein broken down into single AAi. We don’t want ‘fish proteins!’ 1. Break them down and rebuild our own!d. Functionsi. Structure1. Bone Matrix2. Muscle3. Connective Tissue4. Cell Membraneii. Other Constituents of Body1. Blood clotting factor2. Blood transport proteinsa. Ex) Ironb. Ex) Lipoproteins (transport Fat)i. Fat not water-soluble!3. Maintain fluid balancea. Attract and retain fluidb.4. Acid-Base balancea. Blood proteins buffer to maintain homeostasisi. Def: Maintain steady state5. Regulationa. Enzymes are a protein!i. Catalystii. Control and facilitate chemical reactionsiii. Reduces amount of energy needed for reaction to occuriv. Normally only one specific reaction1. Not used up by reaction (reused over and over again)b. Peptide Hormonesi. Hormones have body-wide effect1. Chemical Messengers, Signalsii. Ex) Glucagon1. Tells cells to pull in glucose from blood6. Neurotransmittersa. 3 AAs i. Neurotransmitters themselves or precursor (precursor is similar to final desired productBlood Gutb. Synapsei. Gap btwn neurons1. Neurotransmitters jump the gap7. Immune Systema. Foreign proteins – Antigensb. Antibodies (proteins) attackc. Protein deficiencyi. Leads to decreased immune response!8. Energya. Many other functions, therefore not primarily used for energyi. 15% of total energy comes from proteinb. Gluconeogenesisi. When we run out of CHO1. Break down lean mass into glucoseii. Brain obligate glucose userc. 4 kcal/grame. Protein Requirementi. RDA1. Based on age and body weight (BW)2. Adults 0.8 g/kg – BW/day3. Males – 63 g/day4. Females – 44 g/dayii. Adequate calories will naturally give you adequate proteins for most peopleiii. Higher need situations1. Children – growtha. Up to 2.2 g/kg – BW/day2. Pregnancy3. Highly Activea. Up to 1.5 g/kg – BW/dayiv. MyPlate1. Proportional (just higher intake of calories)v. Average Intakes1. Males – 90 g/day2. Females – 70 g/daya. Most Americans getting enough


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Proteins and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Proteins and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?