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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Exam 3 Study Guide

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NUTR SCI 132Exam # 3 Study Guide Lectures: 21 - 30 NUTR SCI 132Lecture 21Describe the differences in the stresses and benefits between Aerobic Exercise and Strength/Resistance training?What is the FIT training principle?What rule should one follow when trying to improve physical fitness?What is the difference between ADP and ATP?How is the Immediate Energy System used?What is the body’s best form of energy?How is Carbohydrate broken down into energy during exercise? (Describe the two pathways)What is B-oxidation and what is it used for?Lecture 22 How can we predict the source of fuel the body will use? (Match the following with the correct source)How does training altar (improve) the body’s response to exercise?Which (2) nutrients should physically active focus on eating more of?Lecture 23A. 80-90% CHOB. 70-90% FatC. Immediate Energy System (CHO, protein or fat)1. Rest to light work 2. Max Intensity, Short Duration 3. Near Max IntensityWhy is protein important to eat 20-30 min after exercise?Describe some of the unique properties of water.What is homeostasis? Why is it important?Lecture 24In what 3 cases is thirst not a reliable mechanism for regulating (maintaining) fluid balance?How is water distributed within the body?What is Osmosis?How is water lost from the body? (And how much per day?)What is Chloride? (And what are its functions? Sources of it?)What is Potassium? (Functions? Sources?)What is Sodium? (Functions? Sources?)Describe the negative effects of excess sodium intake?Describe the 4 possible stages of Heat StrokeLecture 25What are the risks of overhydration?What should one consume after exercise? (Why?)Name 2 groups of ‘paired nutrients.’ How do they interact with one another?Create a Venn Diagram mapping the relationship between Vitamin and MineralsVitamins Both Minerals- - -Lecture 26What is a metalloenzyme?Match the following Micronutrients with their respective descriptions:What is the role of antioxidants?Are all antioxidants the same?What is a provitamin?What is anemia and what are its symptoms?What is the difference between pernicious (macrocytic) and microcytic anemia?Lecture 27What is the most common mineral deficiency? Toxicity?How is Iron stored? Transported? Why?What two groups have increased need for iron?What (two) factors affect Iron absorption?What does Vitamin K help with?A. Enhances Insulin bindingB. Deficiency causes neurological problems; water-soluble vitamin that can have toxicity problemsC. Important for Na-K exchange; Loss leads to decreased exercise capacity and crampingD. Positive intracellular ion involved with nerve cells and muscle contractionE. Mineral important for gene expression, cell division, wound healing, growth, strength gains and Immune ResponseF. Critical in pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects; important in DNA synthesis and cell divisionG. Store in bone, necessary for muscle contractionH. Enhances Immune Response, neurotransmitters, prevents scurvyI. Deficiencies lead to learning disabilities; component of Myoglobin in red blood cells and myelin sheath (protective wrap around nerves)J. Deficiency causes pernicious anemia, which can be caused by a low intrinsic factor; activates folate; component of myelin sheath1. Zinc 2. Iron 3. B-12 4. Folate 5. Potassium 6. Sodium 7. Calcium 8. Chromium 9. Pyridoxine (B-6) 10. Vitamin CDescribe the B vitamins (generally).What is Pellagra?Which B vitamins are rare to have a deficiency?What is Beri-beri?What are osteoblasts and osteoclasts? What do they do? Why?What are the (3) functions of Calcium?Lecture 28What happens when an individual has low blood Calcium?What is Rickets?What factors affect bone health?What is Osteoporosis? Osteomalacia?What is the best strategy for avoiding complications from Osteoporosis in old age?Lecture 29What is the best way to ensure adequate micronutrient intake (why)?What vitamins are widespread in food sources? Limited in distribution?Which vitamins are fat-soluble?What is the provitamin to vitamin A?How does the body obtain Vitamin D?What is melanoma and what kind of sun exposure causes it?Match the following vitamins and minerals with their respective food sources (Note: food sources may be used more than once, and some vitamins/minerals may have more than one source).Lecture 30What are the forms of Iron in foods? Which type is more bioavailable?How does cooking affect vitamins/minerals? What are the causes of deficiency?FOOD SOURCESA. Orange juiceB. SaltC. Meat, fish, poultry, milkD. Fruits and vegetablesE. MilkF. Dark Leafy GreensG. SesameH. Whole grainsI. ProteinsJ. Fish oilK. Seed OilsL. SeafoodM. Vegetables N. Dried FruitO. CookwareVITAMINS/MINERALS1. Vitamin E 2. Riboflavin 3. Vitamin K 4. Folate 5. Vitamin C 6. Sodium7. B-Vitamins (general) 8. Chloride 9. Potassium 10. Calcium11. Vitamin B-12 12. Thiamin 13. Niacin14. Vitamin D 15. Zinc 16. Iodine 17. Magnesium 18. IronANSWERS:Lecture 21Describe the differences in the stresses and benefits between Aerobic Exercise and Strength/Resistance training?Aerobic: rhythmic/repetitious use of large muscles that demands lots of Oxygen and energy. Benefits cardiovascular systemStrength/Resistance: Isolates muscles. Increase BMR and muscle massWhat is the FIT training principle?Frequency (3-5 days), Intensity (60-80% max Heart Rate), Time (20-30 min)What rule should one follow when trying to improve physical fitness?Don’t increase by more than 10% per weekWhat is the difference between ADP and ATP?ADP converted to ATP by adding a Phosphate. Energy can be stored as ATP.How is the Immediate Energy System used?For (less than) 10 second bursts, Creatine Phosphate used.What is the body’s best form of energy?Muscle glycogen; body fights to preserve.How is Carbohydrate broken down into energy during exercise? (Describe the two pathways)6-Carbon glucose molecule broken down into two 3-Carbon pyruvate molecules in process called anaerobic glycolysis (without Oxygen).If Oxygen is available, the Pyruvate is further broken down into Carbon Dioxide and Water. If Oxygen is not present, the pyruvate will turn into lactic acid. (The lactate is eventually sent to the liver and turned back into glucose).What is B-oxidation and what is it used for?Fat burned for energy at lower intensity exercise. No lactate produced (only carbon dioxide and water).Lecture 22 How can we predict the source of fuel the body will use? (Match the following with the correct source)Duration and Intensity of ActivityHow does


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