UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Deficiencies and Phytochemicals (4 pages)

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Deficiencies and Phytochemicals

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Deficiencies and Phytochemicals


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University of Wisconsin, Madison
Nutrsci 132 - Nutrition Today
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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 31 Outline of Last Lecture I Trace Minerals II Food Sources a Major food groups III Fortification IV Processing a Cooking Outline of Current Lecture I Deficiency Diseases a Causes b Named Deficiencies c Treatment d Abundant Micronutrients II Supplements a RDA b Recommendations III Final Exam Material Current Lecture I Deficiency Diseases a Deficiency causes i Dietary 1 Low intake 2 Diminished Bioavailability These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute 3 High Losses a Iron b c d e i Menstrual losses ii Injury iii Parasites b Electrolytes i Vomiting ii Diarrhea iii Sweating c High Needs i Iron pregnancy and growth Named Deficiencies i Scurvy 1 Vitamin C ii Beri beri 1 Thiamin iii Pellagra 1 Niacin iv Megaloblastic anemia 1 Folate v Pernicious Anemia 1 B 12 vi Rickets 1 Vitamin D vii Osteomalacia 1 Vitamin D Treatment i Whole Foods 1 Best for prevention 2 B vitamins ii Supplements 1 If hard to reverse with food 2 Iron hard to find in food Abundant Micronutrients i Deficiencies Rare 1 Phosphorus 2 Pantothenic Acid 3 Biotin 4 Magnesium Toxicity i Vitamin A 1 Most common vitamin deficiency and toxicity ii Iron 1 Most common mineral deficiency and toxicity II III iii Normally from supplements Supplements a RDA i Meets needs of 98 population in normal good health b Best for special needs or known deficiencies i Iron deficiency anemia 1 Limited distribution 2 Low bioavailability 3 High Need build reserves 4 Pregnancy ii B 12 for vegetarians iii D for non milk drinkers iv Maternal Supplements c Potential Problems i No substitute for whole foods in balanced diet 1 Balance isn t there a Competition for absorption i Ca and Iron ii B 12 deficiency 1 Folate masking by taking folate supplement d Multivitamin Use i About 50 100 Daily Value 1 Not 1 000 ii If any problems 1 Fe B 12 D e Micronutrient Recommendations i Balanced MyPlate diet ii Relatively unprocessed iii Vegetables Fruits whole grains proteins milk Final Exam Material a Phytonutrients i Compare nutrient def 1 Specific chemical 2 Essential a Cant be synthesized b Necessary ii Def 1 Not nutrient a Non essential can be replaced iii People who eat lots of plants have less cancer 1 Fruits Vegetables a Protective against cancer in 128 156 studies 2 Lowest consumers of F V have 2x the risk a Second only to not smoking 3 Especially protective a Cabbage Family i Broccoli ii Cauliflower iii Turnips iv Rutabagas v Kale vi Collards 4 Why a Displace saturated fat fat sugar chemicals b High Levels of nutrient intake c Other food components d Fewer calories iv Nutrients as protective 1 F V Vitamin A a Retinol cell differentiation i Cancer cells poorly differentiated b Protective i Yes Protective against cancer in cell cultures ii Animals deficiency increases risk iii NO correlation between retinol intake in blood and risk c Vitamin A precursors as protective i Blood B carotene do correlate with risk 1 Protects without conversion to retinol ii Anti oxidant 1 Free radical damage to DNA

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