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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Deficiencies and Phytochemicals

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 31 Outline of Last LectureI. Trace MineralsII. Food Sourcesa. Major food groupsIII. FortificationIV. Processinga. CookingOutline of Current Lecture I. Deficiency Diseasesa. Causesb. Named Deficienciesc. Treatmentd. Abundant MicronutrientsII. Supplementsa. RDAb. RecommendationsIII. Final Exam MaterialCurrent LectureI. Deficiency Diseasesa. Deficiency causesi. Dietary 1. Low intake2. Diminished BioavailabilityThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.3. High Lossesa. Ironi. Menstrual lossesii. Injuryiii. Parasitesb. Electrolytesi. Vomitingii. Diarrheaiii. Sweatingc. High Needsi. Iron: pregnancy and growthb. Named Deficienciesi. Scurvy1. Vitamin Cii. Beri-beri1. Thiaminiii. Pellagra1. Niaciniv. Megaloblastic anemia1. Folatev. Pernicious Anemia1. B-12vi. Rickets1. Vitamin Dvii. Osteomalacia1. Vitamin Dc. Treatmenti. Whole Foods1. Best for prevention2. B-vitaminsii. Supplements1. If hard to reverse with food2. Iron (hard to find in food)d. Abundant Micronutrientsi. Deficiencies Rare1. Phosphorus2. Pantothenic Acid3. Biotin4. Magnesiume. Toxicityi. Vitamin A1. Most common vitamin deficiency and toxicityii. Iron1. Most common mineral deficiency and toxicityiii. Normally from supplementsII. Supplementsa. RDA i. Meets needs of 98% population in normal, good healthb. Best for special needs or known deficienciesi. Iron deficiency anemia1. Limited distribution2. Low bioavailability3. High Need (build reserves)4. Pregnancyii. B-12 for vegetariansiii. D for non-milk drinkersiv. Maternal Supplementsc. Potential Problemsi. No substitute for whole foods in balanced diet1. Balance isn’t therea. Competition for absorptioni. Ca and Ironii. B-12 deficiency1. Folate masking (by taking folate supplement)d. Multivitamin Usei. About 50-100% Daily Value1. Not 1,000%ii. If any problems1. Fe, B-12, De. Micronutrient Recommendationsi. Balanced MyPlate dietii. Relatively unprocessediii. Vegetables, Fruits, whole grains, proteins, milkIII. Final Exam Materiala. Phytonutrientsi. Compare nutrient def:1. Specific chemical2. Essential a. Cant be synthesizedb. Necessaryii. Def:1. Not nutrienta. Non-essential, can be replacediii. People who eat lots of plants have less cancer1. Fruits/Vegetablesa. Protective against cancer in 128/156 studies2. Lowest consumers of F/V have 2x the riska. Second only to not smoking!3. Especially protectivea. Cabbage Familyi. Broccoliii. Caulifloweriii. Turnipsiv. Rutabagasv. Kalevi. Collards4. Why?a. Displace saturated fat, fat, sugar, chemicalsb. High Levels of nutrient intakec. Other food componentsd. Fewer caloriesiv. Nutrients as protective1. F/V – Vitamin Aa. Retinol – cell differentiationi. Cancer cells poorly differentiatedb. Protective?i. Yes, Protective against cancer in cell culturesii. Animals: deficiency increases riskiii. NO correlation between retinol intake (in blood) and riskc. Vitamin A precursors as protectivei. Blood B-carotene do correlate with risk1. Protects without conversion to retinolii. Anti-oxidant1. Free radical damage to


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