UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Pregnancy and Phytonutrients (5 pages)

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Pregnancy and Phytonutrients

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Pregnancy and Phytonutrients


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Lecture Note
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Nutrsci 132 - Nutrition Today
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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 32 Outline of Last Lecture I Deficiency Diseases a Causes b Named Deficiencies c Treatment d Abundant Micronutrients II Supplements a RDA b Recommendations III Final Exam Material Outline of Current Lecture I Pregnancy a Trimesters b Nutrient Needs c Special Cases d Problems II Phytonutrients Current Lecture These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute I Pregnancy a Gestation 40 weeks i Trimesters b Infant Growth i Hyperplasia 1 Increase in number of cells ii Hypertrophy 1 Increase in size of cells c First Trimester i Critical development 1 Formation of organs 3 weeks 2 Heart beat 15 weeks ii Most vulnerable to teratogens 1 Birth defects a Alcohol i Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 1 Ability to make decisions impulse control moral judgment b Retinol Supplements i Beta carotene is no risk problem iii Nutrient deficiency also possible 1 But slow growth d Second Trimester i Organs grow and mature 1 1oz fetus grows to 2 3lbs e Third Trimester i 7 8lbs ii Success 1 Gestation 37 weeks 2 Birth weight 5 5lbs 3 Quality of life in infant f Nutrient needs i Energy 1 Extra 300k cal day ii Weight gain 1 Trimester 1 2 4 lbs 2 Trimesters 2 and 3 to 1 lb week 3 Total gain a Normal weight 25 35 lbs b Underweight 28 40 lbs c Overweight 15 25 lbs 4 Division a Baby 8 lbs b Placenta 1 lb c d e f g Amniotic fluid 2 lbs Breast 3lbs Blood 4 lbs Fat 2 8 lbs Muscle 2 lbs iii Nutrients 1 Protein a Increases 10 15 grams day 2 Folic Acid a Low intake associated with higher risk of neural tube defect i Spina bifida b Sources i Leafy greens ii Beans iii Orange Juice 3 Iron a RDA doubles b Deficiency i Premature birth ii Low birth weight iii Early fetal death c Sources i Heme and non heme 4 Maternal Supplement 5 Calcium a 50 increase b Sources i Milk products dark leafy greens 6 MyPlate a 3 servings milk b 3 servings proteins c 3 servings vegetables d 3 servings fruit e 6 servings grains iv Special Cases 1 Vegetarians a Proteins i Beans ii Soy Products b Iron i Fish ii Enhance with Vitamin C iii Supplement c Calcium i Milk ii Greens iii Tofu iv Tortillas v Fortified Orange Juice d B 12 i Supplement ii Fortified food 1 Soy milk or cereal v Reduced kcal 1000 day 1 Decreased growth 2 Netherlands 2nd world war and famine a National Average intake 800 kcal day i Births dropped 1 Lower birth weights g Risk Factors i Poverty ii Obesity iii Poor absent late prenatal care iv Drug alcohol tobacco v Pica vi Prenatal dieting or fasting for 12 hours 1 Or low CHO diet vii Inadequate Weight Gain viii Excessive Caffeine 1 2 cups coffee day 2 4 cups soft drink h Physiological Changes Problems i Placental hormones relax muscles 1 Heartburn a Esophageal sphincter b Stomach Acid i Stay upright after eating ii Lower fat foods empty quicker from stomach 2 Constipation a Peristalsis weaker i Exercise ii Fiber rich foods iii Fluid ii Edema fluid accumulation 1 If accompanied with hypertension can cause convulsions liver and kidney damage iii Morning Sickness II 1 Nausea a 50 pregnancies b Dry food on arising iv Anemia 1 Iron deficiency a Folate deficiency also possible 2 Increase blood volume Phytonutrients a Beta carotene i Free radicals damage DNA 1 Anti oxidants block damage a Vitamin C and E b Carotenoids 500 in nature i Also anti oxidants ii B carotene found in yellow orange F V iii Lutein in dark leafy greens iv Lycopene in tomatoes

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