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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Pregnancy and Phytonutrients

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 32 Outline of Last Lecture I. Deficiency Diseasesa. Causesb. Named Deficienciesc. Treatmentd. Abundant MicronutrientsII. Supplementsa. RDAb. RecommendationsIII. Final Exam MaterialOutline of Current Lecture I. Pregnancya. Trimestersb. Nutrient Needsc. Special Casesd. ProblemsII. PhytonutrientsCurrent LectureThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.I. Pregnancya. Gestation 40 weeksi. Trimestersb. Infant Growthi. Hyperplasia1. Increase in number of cellsii. Hypertrophy1. Increase in size of cellsc. First Trimesteri. Critical development1. Formation of organs – 3 weeks2. Heart beat – 15 weeksii. Most vulnerable to teratogens 1. Birth defectsa. Alcoholi. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome1. Ability to make decisions, impulse control, moral judgmentb. Retinol Supplementsi. Beta-carotene is no risk/problemiii. Nutrient deficiency also possible1. (But) slow growthd. Second Trimesteri. Organs grow and mature1. 1oz fetus grows to 2-3lbse. Third Trimesteri. 7-8lbsii. Success:1. Gestation > 37 weeks2. Birth weight > 5.5lbs3. Quality of life in infantf. Nutrient needsi. Energy1. Extra 300k cal/dayii. Weight gain1. Trimester 1: 2-4 lbs2. Trimesters 2 and 3: ¾ to 1 lb/week3. Total gain:a. Normal weight: 25-35 lbsb. Underweight: 28-40 lbsc. Overweight: 15-25 lbs4. Divisiona. Baby 8 lbsb. Placenta 1 lbc. Amniotic fluid 2 lbsd. Breast 3lbse. Blood 4 lbsf. Fat 2-8 lbsg. Muscle 2 lbsiii. Nutrients1. Proteina. Increases 10-15 grams/day2. Folic Acida. Low intake associated with higher risk of neural tube defecti. Spina bifidab. Sourcesi. Leafy greensii. Beansiii. Orange Juice3. Irona. RDA doublesb. Deficiencyi. Premature birthii. Low birth weightiii. Early fetal deathc. Sourcesi. Heme and non-heme4. Maternal Supplement5. Calciuma. 50% increaseb. Sourcesi. Milk products, dark leafy greens6. MyPlatea. 3 servings milkb. 3 servings proteinsc. 3 servings vegetablesd. 3 servings fruite. 6 servings grainsiv. Special Cases1. Vegetariansa. Proteinsi. Beans ii. Soy Productsb. Ironi. Fishii. Enhance with Vitamin Ciii. Supplementc. Calciumi. Milk ii. Greensiii. Tofuiv. Tortillasv. Fortified Orange Juiced. B-12i. Supplementii. Fortified food1. Soy milk or cerealv. Reduced kcal <1000 day1. Decreased growth2. Netherlands 2nd world war and faminea. National Average intake: 800 kcal/dayi. Births dropped1. Lower birth weightsg. Risk Factorsi. Povertyii. Obesityiii. Poor, absent, late prenatal careiv. Drug, alcohol, tobaccov. Picavi. Prenatal dieting or fasting for >12 hours1. Or low CHO dietvii. Inadequate Weight Gainviii. Excessive Caffeine1. 2 cups coffee/day2. 4 cups soft drinkh. Physiological Changes >> Problemsi. Placental hormones relax muscles1. Heartburna. Esophageal sphincterb. Stomach Acidi. Stay upright after eatingii. Lower fat foods empty quicker from stomach2. Constipationa. Peristalsis weakeri. Exerciseii. Fiber-rich foodsiii. Fluidii. Edema – fluid accumulation1. If accompanied with hypertension, can cause convulsions, liver and kidney damageiii. Morning Sickness1. Nauseaa. 50% pregnanciesb. Dry food on arisingiv. Anemia1. Iron deficiencya. Folate deficiency also possible2. Increase blood volumeII. Phytonutrientsa. Beta-carotenei. Free radicals damage DNA1. Anti-oxidants block damagea. Vitamin C and Eb. Carotenoids – 500 in naturei. Also anti-oxidantsii. B-carotene found in yellow/orange F/Viii. Lutein in dark leafy greensiv. Lycopene in


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