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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Water, Vitamins and Minerals

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 25 Outline of Last Lecture I. Watera. Maintain Fluid Balanceb. Absorptionc. Osmosisd. ExcretionII. Electrolytesa. Chlorideb. Potassiumc. Sodiumi. Blood PressureOutline of Current Lecture I. Exercisea. Hot weather exerciseb. Fluid SourcesII. Micronutrientsa. Supplementsb. Vitaminsc. MineralsCurrent LectureI. Exercisea. Prolonged hot weather exercisei. Risks1. Dehydrationa. “Drink early, drink often”These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.2. Overhydration - dilute electrolytesa. Hyponatremiab. Hypokalemiai. Arrhythmia1. Deathii. CHO – electrolyte drink1. Water – Isotonica. Same concentration of dissolved solutes as bloodi. Allows fluids to be absorbed into blood via Osmosis(instead of fluid going from blood to gut!)iii. After Exercise1. Fluida. Water2. CHOa. Blood Sugarb. Replace glycogen3. Electrolyte Replacementa. Sodiumi. Salty foodb. Potassiumi. Fruits/Vegetables4. Proteina. Tissue Synthesisb. Fluidsi. Sources1. Diuretics – dehydrate you! (Doesn’t ‘count’ as a liquid)a. Caffeineb. Alcoholii. Nutrient Densityiii. How much?1. 1 pt = 1 lb2. 1-1.5 liters per 1000 kcala. ~gallon/dayi. Double if HotII. Micronutrientsa. Ex) James Lyndi. Recommended Lime juice for preventing scurvy on British Naval ships 1700s (first Nutritional Experiment!)b. Isolated concentrated nutrients 1. Competition for absorptiona. Ca-Fe-Zn2. Paired Nutrientsa. B12-Folateb. Iron-Vitamin Cc. Supplementsi. Risks1. Toxicity2. Aren’t completea. Don’t addressi. Trace mineralsii. Phytonutrientsb. Not balancedii. Do not replace need for healthy, balanced diet!d. Vitamins vs. Mineralsi. Both:1. Microscopic needs2. Essentiala. Necessaryb. Can’t synthesize3. Noncaloricii. Vitamins1. Organica. Contain Carbon2. Historya. Began here in Madison: Rat research3. Namesa. Alphabet (A, B, C, D, E, K)b. Chemicali. Ex) A- retinol4. Water Solublea. Readily excretes water i. Excess excreted, not storedii. Deficiencies happen fastiii. Low risk for toxicity5. Fat Solublea. Can’t excrete fati. Excess storedii. Deficiencies happen slowlyiii. Greater Risk for toxicity6. Sourcesa. Plant and Animalsb. Metabolismiii. Minerals1. Inorganic a. Single Elemental (Fe, Ca, K)2. Sourcesa. Products of cosmological forcesb. From soili. Plants and Animals3. Factors affecting statusa. Intakeb. Competition for absorptionc. Bioavailabilityi. 2-75%ii. Factors that decrease absorption1. Excess fiber2. Oxalic acida. Lowers absorption of Calciumi. Spinach3. Less stomach acida. Elderlyb. Antacidsiii. Improve Absorption1. Ex) Irona. MFP Factor (Meat, fish, protein)b. Vitamin Cd. Majori. More of them in body1. Bonea. Ca-P-Mg2. Electrolytesa. Na-K-Cl3. Proteina. S containing AAe. Tracei. Need tiny amounts1. Fe2. Zn3. Iodine4. Seleniumii. Components of Enzymes, proteins,


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