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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Evolution of the Human Diet

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 3Outline of Last Lecture I. Scientific MethodII. Observational StudiesIII. InterventionalOutline of Current Lecture I. Analysis of Methods of ResearchII. How has the diet evolved over time?a. Hunter-gatherersb. AgriculturalistsCurrent LectureI. Analysis of Methods of ResearchCONTROL GENERALIZABILITYAnimals Clinical Trials Epidemiologya. Animal Studiesi. High Control, low generalizabilityb. Epidemiology i. Most generalizable, low control (can only study what people are already doing)c. Clinical Trialsi. Less generalizable (Lab is not the same as the ‘real world’)ii. Not as good of control as animals studiesiii. Best compromise1. Hardest to executed. Just one type of study is insufficienti. Ideally, researcher should have many studies, as well as many typesII. How has the Human Diet Evolved Over Time?These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.a. Hunter-Gatherersi. Could not be picky with food!ii. Not many modern hunter-gatherers lef1. Inuits in Alaskaa. Live in Tundra (not much to eat)i. Seafood2. Native Americansa. Fairly high food security (wild rive, grew corn)i. Buffaloiii. The need to get food dictates your life1. Follow the foodiv. Processing very important in order to maximize amount of nutrients you can obtain from environmentv. Likely more gathering of plant foods than hunting for most people/groupsb. Agriculturalistsi. Corn is most productive crop (calories/acre)1. Niacin in corn is not readily available to digest (bioavailable)a. Mexicans grind up corn and treat with lime (calcium carbonate)i. This process makes niacin bioavailable!ii. Agriculture only began 8,000-5,000 years ago1. Only 2-3 of our genes have changed as a resultiii. Potatoes from Peru1. Wild potatoes have a toxina. Treated with clay to neutralize -or- b. Breed modern potato so it doesn’t have toxiniv. Today only 1% Americans involved in Agriculture (but everyone celebratesThanksgiving, a harvest festival!)v. Subsistence agriculture1. Def: growing food only to support family, not to sell2. Lots of work! (Exercise)vi. Animal agriculture1. Def: Domesticating animals2. We can’t digest grass but many animals have enzymes that we don’t havec. Modern Dieti. Much different than previous


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