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OAKTON PSY 101 - Study Notes

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EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY EIGHTH EDITION IN MODULES David MyersPersonalitySlide 3Slide 4Slide 5PersonalityPsychoanalytic PerspectiveExploring the UnconsciousFreud’s Idea of the MindPersonality StructurePersonality DevelopmentPsychosexual StagesSlide 13Defense MechanismsSix Defense MechanismsThe Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic TheoristsSlide 17Assessing Unconscious ProcessesRorschach Inkblot TestEvaluating the Psychoanalytic PerspectiveSlide 21Slide 22Cognitive Research and the Unconscious MindThe Humanistic PerspectiveAbraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing PersonCarl Rogers’ Person-Centered PerspectiveSlide 27Assessing the SelfEvaluating the Humanistic PerspectiveSlide 30EXPLORINGPSYCHOLOGYEIGHTH EDITION IN MODULESDavid MyersPowerPoint SlidesAneeq AhmadHenderson State UniversityWorth Publishers, © 20112PersonalityClassic Perspectives on PersonalityModule 3034The Psychoanalytic PerspectiveExploring the UnconsciousThe Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic TheoriesAssessing Unconscious ProcessesEvaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective5The Humanistic PerspectiveAbraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing PersonCarl Roger’s Person-Centered PerspectiveAssessing the SelfEvaluating the Humanistic Perspective6PersonalityPersonality is an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.The classic theories of personality offer sweeping perspectives on human nature and have become a part of our cultural legacy7Psychoanalytic PerspectiveIn his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders. Their complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes.Sigmund Freud(1856-1939)Culver Pictures8Exploring the UnconsciousThe unconscious, according to Freud, is a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds (free association) in order to tap the unconscious.He called his theory of personality, attributing thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts, and the associated treatments psychoanalysis.9Freud’s Idea of the MindCentral to Freud’s theories was the idea that the mind was mostly hidden, like an iceberg where only the tip is above the surface.10Personality StructureIn Freud’s view personality arises from a conflict between impulse and restraint. He proposed three interacting systems:Id - unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.Ego - the “executive”, mediates the demands of the id and superegoSuperego – the conscience, provides standards for judgment and future aspirations..11Personality DevelopmentFreud believed that personality formed during the first few years of life divided into psychosexual stages. During these stages the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones.For example, according to Freud, in the phallic stage boys develop sexual desires for their mothers and hatred for their fathers. He called this the Oedipus complex.12Psychosexual StagesFreud divided the development of personality into five psychosexual stages.13Personality DevelopmentChildren cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and identifying with the rival parent. Through this identification process, their superego gains strength that incorporates their parents’ values.In Freud’s view, if conflicts were not resolved in one of the stages, a person could fixate their pleasure-seeking energies in that stage. From the K. Vandervelde private collection14Defense MechanismsFreud proposed that the ego protects itself with defense mechanisms, unconsciously reducing anxiety by distorting reality.For example, repression is the basic mechanism which banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.15Six Defense Mechanisms16The Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic TheoristsLike Freud, Adler and Horney believed in childhood tensions. However, these tensions were social in nature, not sexual. A child struggles with an inferiority complex during growth and strives for superiority and power.Alfred AdlerKaren Horney17The Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic TheoristsJung believed in the collective unconscious, a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nurturance.Carl Jung (1875-1961) Archive of the History of American Psychology/ University of Akron18Assessing Unconscious ProcessesEvaluating personality from an unconscious mind’s perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) using ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics.19Rorschach Inkblot TestThe most widely used projective test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, uses a set of 10 inkblots and was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.However, both its reliability and validity have been questioned.20Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective1. Personality develops throughout life and is not fixed in childhood.2. Freud underemphasized peer influence on the individual, which may be as powerful as parental influence.3. Gender identity may develop before 5-6 years of age.21Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective4. Repression is a rare mental response to trauma, more often high stress situations enhance memory.5. There may be other reasons for dreams besides wish fulfillment.6. Verbal slips can be explained on the basis of cognitive processing of verbal choices.22Evaluating the Psychoanalytic PerspectiveThe scientific merits of Freud’s theory have been criticized. Psychoanalysis is meagerly testable. Most of its concepts arise out of clinical practice, which are the after-the-fact explanation.23Cognitive Research and the Unconscious MindModern research shows the existence of non-conscious information processing. This involves:1. Right-hemisphere activity that enables the split-brain patient’s left hand to carry out an instruction the patient cannot verbalize2. Parallel processing during vision and thinking3. Implicit memories4. Emotions that activate instantly without consciousness5. Self-concept and stereotypes that unconsciously influence us24The Humanistic PerspectiveBy the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with Freud’s negativity and the mechanistic


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