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MSU MMG 301 - Module 36

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Module 36Influenza VirusDescribe the genome and virion structure of Influenza Virus- Negative strand - Enveloped - 8 segment- of (-) single strand RNA- Spiked surface- where the antigens are locatedIdentify the two major antigens1. HA- Hem agglutinin trimmer (attachment of virion for infection) 2. NA- Neuraminidase tetramer (release of virus from the cell surface)Distinguish between antigenic shift and antigenic driftAntigenic shirt: - genetic shuffling - Infection of a single host cell that is a different subtype of influenza A - A cell is infected by two different viruses, these segments can rearrange/reassert and so you end up with a virus that has segments from both of the two parental strains- Forms a brand new antigenic subtype- New Influenza A subtypeAntigenic Drift:- random mutation of the genome- Comes from a new influenza subtype and random mutation occurs - Also results in different antigenic types- Makes different antigenic strains- has many different results not just 1Explain the process of antigenic shift1. Two different viruses infect the same cell and they reassert 2. This assortment gives a new influenza subtypeDiscuss the reasons for yearly vaccines- Vaccines are strain specific- this virus is constantly changing so we need new specific vaccines every year- Because of antigenic drift and antigenic shift- They are making new subtypes all the timeDescribe the role of animals in influenza pandemics- directly from birds or from avian influenza A virus-contaminated environments to people- through an intermediate host, such as a pigcan have reassortment within the animal forming new viral genome to spreadRhinovirus and ChickenpoxCompare and contrast these two very different virions and genomes- single strand rna + naked virus for rhino very small- herpes enveloped virus very large very large genomeExplain why are we covering these viruses togetherChicken pox and cold spread the same way, in aerosols or in contact, formites, both respiratory tract infectionDiscuss why colds are so commonMany different serotypes, over 150, very little cross protection, very stable on skin which is how they can spread easilyIdentify the location of lifelong VZV infection- sensory neurons - cnsDescribe how to tell a cold from the flu- share many similar sx - cold rarely a fever only sometimes ha, less fatigue, more rhinorrhea, sore throat, sneezing- flu have fever and ha, more fatigue, less rhinorrheaDistinguish chickenpox from shinglesAdult form of chickenpoxDefine “fomite” and “aerosol”Formite is an inanimate object carrying the diseaseaerosol is in the

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