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MSU MMG 301 - Module 24

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Module 24Distinguish populations, guilds, communities, habitats, and ecosystem; how is a freshwater lake an example of a microbial ecosystem; what are the energy inputs PopulationsGuilds- populations that do not relate metabolismCommunitiesHabitats- large environment of guildsMicrobial communities that interact with communities of macroorganisms and that physiochemical environment to define the entire ecosystemExplain the difference between species richness and species abundance Species richness- refers the the number of different species presentSpecies abundance- is the fraction or proportion of each species within a communityDescribe the methods used to determine microbial community composition; what staining methods are used for microscopic analysis; what is a live/dead stain The methods used to determine microbial community composition is Microscopic analysis which uses staining and nucleic acid probes and Genetic analysis which uses PCR and or sequencing microarray methods. Staining methods use fluorescent dyes that stain DNA or discriminate dead from live cellsOrder the steps for the basic method of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and explain what is it used for 1. Synthesize oligonucleotide specific for the organism you are looking fore; probes can be synthesized to be general or very specific2. Chemically attach a fluorescent dye molecule to the oligonucleotide3. Treat sample containing cells to make membranes permeable to oligonucleotide + dye molecules4. Examine sample using fluorescence microscopy; only cells in which the oligonucleotide had correctly base-pair will be flouroescentReview what culture-independent methods are and the examples shown in the module; what are the two types of culture-independent analysis that can be done without using DNA sequencing Distinguish how DNA sequences are analyzed by the community sampling or the environmental genomics approaches; what information does each approach provide Community sampling- what is in the community Environmental genomics- want to know everything about the community members and get all possible sequence information What are phylochips and what are they used for; what is hybridization of DNA Phylochips are units of specification of organisms. Used to analyzing hundreds or thousands of different community members using these methods.How have metagenomic methods been applied in analyzing microbial communities in the Sargasso Sea and the human microbiome Metagenomic analysis of community diversity is done by the sequencing all DNA isolated from microbial communitiesBe able to briefly describe the Human Microbiome Project The Human Microbiome Project is a National Institutes of Health initiative to identify the role of microbes in human

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