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MSU MMG 301 - Module 28

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Module 28Be able to describe the two major groups of herbivores based on gut anatomy 1. Foregut fermenters, monkeys, hoatzin, foregut formation chamber2. Hindgut fermenter, rodents, cecumBe able to describe how the rumen is involved in the digestive system of ruminant animals, including the major type of carbon nutrient that is absorbed through the rumen wall, and what are the gas products of this anaerobic process - Rumen is involved in the digestive system of ruminant animals because they have a specialized digestive chamber.- The major types of carbon nutrients that is absorbed through the rumen wall are plant fibers- The gas products of this anaerobic process is CH4, CO2Order the steps and summarize what happens as food follows through each organ of the ruminant digestive system 1. Rumen- fermentation anaerobic2. Omasum- water removed3. Abomasum- true stomach acid enzyme 4. Small/large intestine- nutrientsProvide an example of what can happen if the rumen microbial ecology becomes unbalance- Sudden dietary changes can produce significant changes in the makeup of the microbial community (dysbiosis)- Switching from forage to a diet high in grains can favor growth of lactic acid producing bacteria, creates a pH drop in rumenWhat is the human microbiome and how is it being studied - Human microbiome is all the microbes on all sites of the human body most significantly oral, gut, skin- Its being studied in the human microbiome projectOrder the main sections of the human gastrointestinal tract; be able to describe how microbial habitats change as food and microbes move from stomach to rectum1. Upper gastrointestinal tract2. Lower gastrointestinal tractMicrobial habitats change as food and microbes move from stomach to rectum is- pH- acid= neutral- Oxygen- aerobic- anaerobic- Diversity- low= highProvide examples of why gut microbes important for human nutrition - Vitamin synthesis- Glycosidase activity- Steroid metabolism- Stimulation of immune system- Antagonism of pathogensExplain what obesity or antibiotic treatment can do to the human gut microbiome community and how this is studied; describe how pie charts are used to represent data from these studies - Microbial community plays a role in obesity by differences in community observed by comparing lean vs. diet-induced obesity in mice- Microbial community’s changes before, during, and after administering antibiotics- Pie charts are used to represent date from these studies to change the phylum level in control, antibiotic treated, and recoveryDifferentiate between horizontal and vertical transmission of symbionts; how does the Peaaphidbenefit from symbiotic bacteria; how does Wolbachia ensure vertical transmission - Horizontal transmission- symbioses from environment- Vertical transmission- passage of disease causing agent from mother to baby during period immediately before and after birth- Peaaphid benefits from symbiotic bacteria because it gets its food source (sap) is low in amino acids- Wolbachia ensures vertical transmission by infecting sex cells of host and is passes from mother to child eggsExplain how the termites are dependent on its gut microflora for survivalTermites are dependent on its gut microflora for survival because wood contains fibers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and ligninHow do symbiotic bacteria use quorum sensing in the bobtail squidEmits viable light in response to quorum sensing, where high populations density in the light organ switch on genes for light productionDescribe the symbiotic relationship of Rifta tube worms and bacteria; what is the ultimate energy source of the worm and how are symbiotic bacteria involved- Symbiotic relationship of Rifta tube worms and bacteria is the worm has no digestive system: bacteria provide all nutrients - The ultimate energy source of the worm is mostly aerobic respiration using hydrogen sulfide as electron donor- Other organisms in this habitat (clams, snails) are also dependent on symbiotic


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