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MSU MMG 301 - Module 18

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Module 18It is assumed that you are familiar of prokaryotic transcription and translation – these are covered in BS 161. If you need a refresher on these topics, consult your textbook or view the pre-module review animations on D2L Differentiate between genotype and phenotype Genotypes are all the genes in an organismPhenotype characteristics of an organismCorrelate each of the 4 types of base pair substitutions with their effect on the resulting proteinBase pairs are single based charges in the DNA sequence Missense- different codonNonsense- stop codonSilent- change in the codon but makes some amino acidsDescribe what a frameshift mutation is and how a frameshift nutation affects the resulting protein Frameshift mutations cause changes in all amino acid codons downstream of the mutation site.Frameshift nutation affects the resulting protein by deleting the pair.Explain what reversions are; how can a second site mutation restore a correct a frame shift mutation Reversions are mutations that restore a genotype or phenotype. A second site mutation restore a correct frame shift mutation by restoring the correct reading frame.State in simple terms what a suppressor tRNA is and how it can produce a normal protein from a no sense codon on DNA A suppressor tRNA insets a correct amino acid at the UAG codon and normal protein is made. Understand the types of DNA repair mechanisms and the enzymes involved; explain what detects damaged DNA; what are the roles of RecA and LexA in DNA repairThe SOS system regulates about 40 genes involved in DNA dame and damage tolerance. RecA is activated by DNA damage and LexA is a repressor of many SOS genes. Activated RacA becomes a LexA specific protaste and degrades the LexA repressor protein- DNA repair genes are therefore switched on.Order the sequence of steps involved in homologous recombination, including the proteins participating in each step Be able to illustrate or explain horizontal gene transfer by transformation Transformation is a horizontal genetic transfer process where external free DNA is take into a recipient

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