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TAMU HLTH 335 - Human Diseases

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HLTH 335 1st Edition Lecture 4 Chapter 4: Cancer“The Enemy Within”http://www.worldcancerday.org/understanding-cancer-enemy-within-documentaryWatch video before test!Today’s Objectives:-Define neoplasia and related terminology.-Describe differences between benign and malignant tumors, and classification of cancers.-Explain the biology of human cancer and the role of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes.-Discuss etiology of cancer. -Describe the current treatments of the most common cancers.-Discuss warning signs of cancer.Neoplasia-Uncontrolled growth of cells.-Neoplasm: a mass of cells that grow more rapidly than normal cells.-Benign- noncancerous.-Malignant- consists of rapidly dividing cells that accumulate uncontrollably and invade normal tissue and have the ability to metastasize (generate independent tumors at distant sites).-There are over 100 types and subtypes of malignancies, a.k.a. cancers.Characteristics of Benign Tumors-Grow slowly.-Remain localized: Do not metastasize or recur following surgery.-Well-differentiated cells that resemble the tissue from which it grew.-May “push” on other tissues, but does not invade.Characteristics of Malignant Tumors-Grow rapidly.-Metastasize by bloodstream or lymphatic channels, leading to establishment of secondary sitesof tumor growth.-Poorly differentiated cells.-Infiltrate (invade) surrounding tissues.These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Classification & Nomenclature of Cancers-By the type of cell it originates in…-Carcinoma: epithelial cells.-Sarcoma: connective tissue.-Mixed Cancer: epithelial and connective tissue.-Lymphoma: lymphoid tissue.-Leukemia: white blood cells.-Melanoma: melanin.-There are various exceptions, e.g. adenosarcoma originates in epithelial cells.Cancer Statistics-Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and afflicts two of every three families.-Deaths from cancer in the world are projected to continue to rise; according to WHO:-estimated 9 million deaths projected for 2015.-estimated 11.4 million deaths for 2030.-In the United States, approximately:-1 of every 2 men, and 1 of every 3 women will be diagnosed with an invasive cancer in their lifetime.How Cancer Begins-Transofrmation  1. Initiation  2. Promotion  3. Progression-Change in genetic material (mutation) prepares the cell to become cancerous.Biology of Carcinogenesis-Oncogenes-When mutated or expressed at abnormally high levels contribute to conversion of normal cells to cancer cells, by interfering with cell growth regulation and apoptosis.-Over 100 oncogenes have been identified.-Tumor suppressor genes (TSG)-If inactivated or deleted, cancer progression more likely, due to a loss of normal TSG function.-DNA repair genes (a.k.a. “caretaker” genes)-Normally repair DNA replication errors; when supply is lowered, cancer progression more likely.**Important note: Although a specific genetic mutation might be identified, the cause of that mutation may still be unknown…Etiology of Cancer-Types of research to understand cancer etiology:-In vitro (laboratory).-Epidemiology (population-based studies).-Endogenous (internal) factors.-Environmental (external) factors.-Endogenous factors-Genetic makeup, including sex, race, heredity, hormones, and immunity; age.-Non-modifiable.-Environmental factors-Tobacco, industrial chemicals, radiation, diet, alcohol, and medicinal carcinogens. (modifiable) (the top 3 are among the most significant environmental carcinogens).-Know that inheritance of Fanconi’s anemia is associated with leukemia.Non-specific Warning Signs of Cancer1. Change in bowel or bladder habits.2. A sore that does not heal.3. Unusual bleeding or discharge.4. A thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere.5. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing.6. An obvious change in wart or mole.7. A nagging cough or hoarseness.**Know what CAUTION stands for in own words**Traditional Cancer Treatments-Surgery-Radiation therapy-Chemotherapy-Hormone therapy-Combination, targeted, and personalized.Alternative or Complementary Cancer Treatments-Diet & exercise-Herbs-Food Science-Angiogenesis?Angiogenesis and Cancerhttp://www.ted.com/talks/william_li.html**Watch this video for the


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