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TAMU HLTH 335 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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HLTH 335 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 4Lecture 1 (January 22)Terminology:-Homeostasis: when all cells, tissues, organs, and systems work together to successfully maintain equilibrium.-Disease: any state of disequilibrium; a change in function or structure that is consideredabnormal.-Pathology: study of disease in general.-Pathologist: a physician who studies & interprets the changes caused by disease.-Etiology: cause.- Pathogenesis = Source or cause of disease, together with its development.-Idiopathic = the term used to describe diseases of unknown etiology.-Lesion = usually at the root of most causes of diseases; could be a damaged gene or enzyme, or abnormal cells, tissues, or organs.-Prognosis: the predicted course and outcome of the disease.-Acute: quick onset, short duration, e.g., influenza, measles, and common cold.-Chronic: a disease may begin insidiously and be long-lived e.g., arthritis.-Terminal: a disease that will end in death.Terminology related to the stages of a disease.-Remission, Exacerbation, Relapse, Complication.Manifestations of Disease:-Signs: objective evidence of disease observed on physical examination such as sweating.-Symptoms: subjective indications of disease reported by the patient such as pain.Principles of Diagnosis-Diagnosis: process of identifying a disease, syndrome, or disorder.1. Clinical history (5 parts)2. Physical examination3. Differential diagnosis-5 parts:1. History of current illness2. Patient’s medical history3. Family history4. Social history5. Review of symptoms/signs-Differential diagnosis: consideration of various diseases or conditions that may alsoexplain patient’s symptoms and signs.-Major Causes of Disease: Heredity, Degenerative, Nutritional, Stress, etc.-Risk Factor: anything that predisposes an individual to the development of a disease. (not equivalent to a cause!!)-U.S. spends more on healthcare than any other nation. -75% goes to treatment of chronic diseases.Steps to promote healthy lives:-Be active, eat wisely, be tobacco free, limit alcohol, manage stress, etc.Healthy Aging steps:-Be active, be mindful of medications, keep vision sharp, & eliminate hazards in living space.Treatment:-Specific treatment (curative):-Directed at underlying cause.-Exerts a highly specific and favorable effect on the basic cause of disease (e.g., antibioticfor bacterial infection in throat).-Symptomatic (palliative) treatment:-Alleviates symptoms but does not influence course of disease (e.g., treatment of fever, pain, and cough).-Unfortunately, some diseases have no specific treatment or cure.Screening Tests:-Screening tests for detection of disease-Detect early asymptomatic diseases amenable to treatment to prevent or minimize late-stage organ damage.-Screening for genetic diseases-To screen for carriers of some genetic diseases transmitted from parent to child as either dominant or recessive trait.-Identifying carriers allows affected persons to make decisions on future childbearing or management of current pregnancy.-Ex: recessive gene for sickle cell anemia in 8% of the African American population.Screening Tests: Justification!-1. A significant number of persons bust be at risk for the disease in the group being screened.-2. A relatively inexpensive, noninvasive test must be available to screen for the disease that does not yield a high number of false-positive or false-negative results.-3. Early identification and treatment of the disease will favorably influence course of disease.*False positive: When you don’t have anything but the test says you do.*False negative: When you do have a disease but the test doesn’t show it.**This is an ethical issue. Patients should have good reason before undergoing screenings.Lecture 2 (January 27) Immunity:-The ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells, and abnormal body cells. -Nonspecific Defenses (Innate Immunity): Barriers, Phagocytosis, NK cells, Fever, Interferon, Inflammation.-Specific Defenses (Acquired Immunity): Cell-Mediated & Humoral.Non-Specific Defense and Innate Immunity:-Physical and chemical barriers-Intact skin (physical).-Skin produces secretions (tears, sweat, saliva, oils) that contain chemicals that can destroy foreign invaders.-Phagocytosis-Leukocytes destroy infectious agents through phagocytosis.-Natural Killer (NK) Cells:-One type of leukocyte that works by recognizing abnormal membranes.-Interferons are anti-viral proteins that boost immunity.Immunity:-The ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells, and abnormal body cells. -Nonspecific Defenses (Innate Immunity): Barriers, Phagocytosis, NK cells, Fever, Interferon, Inflammation.-Specific Defenses (Acquired Immunity): Cell-Mediated & Humoral.**Acquired Immunity involves the lymphatic system.Acquired Immunity:-Acquired immunity is the body’s specific response to a specific pathogen.-Passive acquired immunity results when a person receives protective substances produces by another human or animal.-Active acquired immunity develops following direct exposure to the pathogenic agent.-Immunizations and vaccinations are special types of active acquired immunity.Cellular Immunity:-These defense cells are cytotoxic.-B-lymphocytes are produced in bone marrow.-T-lymphocytes are produced in thymus.Hypersensitivity (ALLERGY!!)-Diseases that occur as a result of immune response.-Types of hypersensitivity: Type I (immediate), Type II (cytotoxic), Type III (immune-complex), Type IV (delayed). Not in order of seriousness.Type I Hypersensitivty-Most common & localized.-IgE binds to mast cells & triggers histamine production.-Histamine triggers the inflammation process.-Antihistamines used for treatment.-Decongestant can help, but won’t stop process.Type II Hypersensitivity-Cytotoxic (very serious!)-IgM or IgG causes the destruction of cells.-Ex: Response to an incompatible blood transfusion.**Body is opposed to blood aka deadly.Type III Hypersensitivity-Immune – complex hypersensitivity.-Antigens combine with MANY antibodies, forming a soluble mass (immune complexes).-The complexes can deposit in tissues and vessels and trigger inflammation and tissue destruction.Type IV Hypersensitivity-Delayed hypersensitivity.-Ex: Reactions to poison ivy/oak.-Autoantibodies are those that attack the individual’s own tissues.Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Noncontagious inflammatory disease that takes one of two forms: mild or severe.Symptoms


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