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TAMU HLTH 335 - Human Diseases

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HLTH 335 1st Edition Lecture 1 Human DiseasesToday’s Objectives:-Define disease and disease-related terminology.-Discuss principles of diagnosis.-Identify major causes of disease.-Identify risk factors related to disease.-Describe how health promotion & disease prevention reduce the burden of disease.-Discuss treatment of diseases.-Discuss screening procedures.Disease Terminology:-Homeostasis: when all cells, tissues, organs, and systems work together to successfully maintain equilibrium.-Disease: any state of disequilibrium; a change in function or structure that is considered abnormal.-Pathology: study of disease in general.-Pathologist: a physician who studies & interprets the changes caused by disease.Manifestations of Disease:-Signs: objective evidence of disease observed on physical examination, such as abnormal pulse or respiratory rate, fever, sweating, and pallor.-Symptoms: subjective indications of disease reported by the patient, such as pain, dizziness, and itching.-Syndrome: when certain sets of signs and symptoms occur concurrently and suggest the presence of disease.-Disorder: a functional abnormality not necessarily linked to a specific cause or physical abnormality.Principles of Diagnosis:-Diagnosis: process of identifying a disease, syndrome, or disorder.-1. Clinical history (5 parts!)-2. Physical Examination-3. Differential diagnosis (systematic process of elimination)The 5 Parts of Clinical History-1. History of current illnessThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.-Severity, time of onset, and character of patient’s symptoms.-2. Patient’s Medical history-Details of general health and previous illnesses that may shed light on current problems.-3. Family history-Health of patient’s parents and family members; diseases that run in families.-4. Social history-Patient’s occupation; lifestyle behaviors (habits, alcohol, tobacco consumption, etc), general health, current problems.-5. Review of symptoms/signsEliciting additional information about symptoms other than those disclosed in history of present illness (e.g. not sleeping well at night).Physical Examination-Physical examination-Systematic examination of patient, with emphasis on parts of body affected by illness.-Abnormalities noted correlated with clinical history.Differential Diagnosis-Differential Diagnosis-Consideration of various diseases or conditions that may also explain patient’s symptoms and signs.Ex: shortness of breath could be heart problem; not just lung problem.-Diagnosis possibilities narrowed by selected laboratory tests or other diagnostic procedures.-Opinion of medical consultant/specialist may be sought.Causes of Disease – Terminology-Etiology = Cause-Pathogenesis = Source or cause of disease, together with its development.-Idiopathic = the term used to describe diseases of unknown etiology.-Lesion = usually at the root of most causes of diseases; could be a damaged gene or enzyme, orabnormal cells, tissues, or organs.Majors Causes of Disease-Inflammatory, autoimmune, and allergic disorders.-Infection (bacterial, viral, and parasitic)-Neoplastic-Heredity-Congenital-Traumatic (due to environmental factors)-Degenerative-Nutritional-StressRisk Factors for DiseaseRisk Factor: anything that predisposes an individual to the development of a disease.-Not equivalent to a cause!!Types of Risk Factors:-Environmental, Chemical, Physiological, Psychological, GeneticMore Disease – Related Terminology-Prognosis: the predicted course and outcome of the disease.-State the chances for complete recovery.-Predict the permanent loss of function.-Probability of survival.-Acute: Quick onset, short duration, e.g., influenza, measles, and the common cold.-Chronic: A disease may begin insidiously and be long-lived; e.g.; arthritis, hypertension.-Terminal: A disease that will end in death.-Terminology related to the stages of a disease-Remission: signs and symptoms subside.-Exacerbation: signs and symptoms recur in all severity.-Relapse: signs and symptoms return weeks or months later.-Complication: a related disease or other abnormal state that develops in one already suffering from a disease.Health Promotion & Disease Prevention-“The function of protecting and developing health must rank even above that of restoring it when it is impaired.”-The U.S. spends more on healthcare than any other nation.-75% goes to treatment of chronic diseases.-Investing in prevention would yield a significant reduction in disease and health care costs.Steps to promote healthy lives:-By physically active.-Eat wisely.-Maintain healthy weight.-Be tobacco free.-Limit alcohol.-Get recommended screening tests and immunizations.-Manage stress.Healthy Aging Steps:-In addition to those in previous slide…-Fall prevention: be physically active, be mindful of medications, keep vision sharp, and eliminate hazards in living space.Treatment of Disease:-Includes procedures for:-the cure, or…-reduction of symptoms-Depends on the nature of the disease, characteristics of the patient, and goals of the patient and physician.-Not all diseases are curable.Treatment:-Specific treatment (curative):-Directed at underlying cause.-Exerts a highly specific and favorable effect on the basic cause of disease (e.g., antibioticfor bacterial infection in throat).-Symptomatic (palliative) treatment:-Alleviates symptoms but does not influence course of disease (e.g., treatment of fever, pain, and cough).-Unfortunately, some diseases have no specific treatment or cure.Screening Tests:-Screening tests for detection of disease-Detect early asymptomatic diseases amenable to treatment to prevent or minimize late-stage organ damage.-Screening for genetic diseases-To screen for carriers of some genetic diseases transmitted from parent to child as either dominant or recessive trait.-Identifying carriers allows affected persons to make decisions on future childbearing or management of current pregnancy.-Ex: recessive gene for sickle cell anemia in 8% of the African American population.Screening Tests: Justification!-1. A significant number of persons bust be at risk for the disease in the group being screened.-2. A relatively inexpensive, noninvasive test must be available to screen for the disease that does not yield a high number of false-positive or false-negative results.-3. Early identification and treatment of the disease


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