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TAMU HLTH 335 - Human Diseases

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HLTH 335 1st Edition Lecture 4 Nosocomial Infections:-Also called hospital-acquired infections.-The principal routes of transmission:-Direct contact between healthcare staff to patient.-Indirect contact through fomites and hospital’s ventilation system.-Most are bacterial in nature. (Catheters are most common fomite. Staph is #1).-1.7 million patients in U.S. contract nosocomial infection each year.-99,000 die as a result.-Top 3 nosocomial infections: UTI’s, site of surgery, in lungs.**Extra Credit: Find out what the current stat is on how many people contract nosocomial infections each year.Antibiotic Treatment of Bacterial Infections:-One of the great discoveries and advances in medicine.-Specific antibiotics target specific bacteria.-Four principal mechanisms of action.Antibiotics: Mechanisms of Action:-Inhibit synthesis of bacterial cell wall and cell membrane. Ex: penicillin family-Inhibit synthesis of microbial proteins. Ex: tetracycline-Inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis. Ex: ciprofloxacin-Competitive inhibition.-Some antibiotics “confuse” the bacteria because they resemble required components for growth.-Extra Credit: What kind of example works for competitive inhibition?Antibiotic Resistance:-Antiobiotic resistance in humans occurs because of:1. Over-prescribing or inappropriate prescribing.2. Overuse as feed supplement for livestock.3. Improper use/compliance by patient.4. Spread of resistant strains of bacteria worldwide.Antiviral Treatment:-Nucleic acid analogues mimic correct DNA or RNA bases.-Interfere with assembly of new virus particles within the cell or interfere with the attachment of viruses to host cells.  Reduces the number or viruses reproduced.These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Antifungal Treatment:-Target cells walls and membranes.-Affect human cells, therefore may be toxic to humans.Antiprotozoals:-Interfere with protein synthesis and metabolism.-But, resistant microorganisms evolve, rendering existing treatments useless.Re-emerging Infectious Disease:-Known infectious disease that re-appear after a significant decline in incidence (or a perceived eradication).-Causes:-Environmental: Changes in climate, natural disasters.-Societal/Behavioral: urbanization (crowding, poverty); globalization (rapid world travel).-Political: disruption of government structures, war, civil unrest.Summary:-We defined ID and related terminology.-We discussed transmission, control of transmission, and treatment of ID.-We discussed various categories of infectious agents and their characteristics; prions, viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and helminthes.-We defined and discussed nosocomial infections.-We discussed antibiotic resistance and appropriate use of antibiotics.-We defined and discussed general causes of re-emerging


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