BU PSYC 111 - CHAPT. 5 – Psychological Psychology

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CHAPT. 5 – Psychological Psychology- Study of brain + behavior and brain + cognition - Phineas Gage: mid-1800s, worked for Transcontinental Railroad, very conscientious◦ Injury – rod through his head buy recovered but personality had changed▪ Because a drunkard and womanizer◦ Brain has plasticity◦ Brain is responsible for higher setters as sophisticated as personality- Physiological Psychology – relationship between the brain and behavior and the brain and cognition◦ Infer what's going on in the mid by looking at the brain.- Scientists are reductionists – break everything down into the smallest units◦ Gross level – top to down (the whole)◦ Cellular Level: down to up◦ NeuronsThe Neuron- Cell body – (Soma) similar to all the other cells in the body- Dendrites – the branches, pick up signals form other neurons, have receptors – dendritic spines◦ Receptors pick up signals, then transmit them across dendrites and soma▪ Electricity spreads across the dendrites then to the soma◦ Local potentials – (graded potential) individual bursts of electricity. Electrical signal▪ Signals- Axon hillock – where axon and soma meet◦ Makes decision based on how much electricity has come through the dendrites and soma ◦ Summation occurs – if enough electricity reaching axon hillock at the same time, neuron sends signal down the axon▪ All or None Principle - If not, wipes it clean- Axon – send electrical signals from soma to axon terminal◦ Membranes in axon open and close◦ Ions (charged particles) come in and out◦ Leads to an electrical signal- Myelin sheath – adaptive, located around the nerve cells, layer of fat over axon (adaptive)◦ Come from Glial Cells (glue) – support cells (auxiliary cells)◦ Help brain and nerve keep their functions◦ Make signals travel fasterAction Potential - In axon:◦ K+ - Potassium (inside)◦ Na+ - Sodium (outside)◦ When the neuron gives the signal, membranes open up; sodium flows in and potassium goesout◦ Brain communicates through electrical signals- Ca (Calcium) flows in at axon terminal◦ Nodes of Ranvier – saltatory conductor, gaps between glial cells◦ Instead of the signal being propagated in the axon, saltatory conduction with myelin sheath.◦ Causes vesicles (containers) holds neurotransmitter◦ Goes to membrane◦ Vesicles open and neurotransmitter defuses form them into a small gap ▪ Gaps is called synapses and react with receptors on dendritic spines- Neurons look differently and have many different structures and make many connections- Synaptogenesis – brain makes connection with other nerve cells at infancy. Certain nerve cells making the right connections and getting stronger. Others are not making connection and they die. Grow more neurons than you need. ◦ Apoptosis – the cells' deathNeurotransmitters (NTs)- 100+ substances being released form axon terminal- Sherrington Law : for each neuron there is one and only one neurotransmitter (FALSE)◦ Classical Neurotransmitter – widespread distribution and Sherrington Law is true- Lock + Key – right transmitter for right receptor- Neurotransmitter could be excitatory or inhibitory- Drugs can manipulate the transmission neurotransmitter◦ Agonist – increase the activity of neurotransmitter◦ Antagonist – decrease the activity of neurotransmitter- Acetylcholine – peripheral nervous system (brain and spina cord), all neurons that goes throughthe nervous system◦ Curare – Acetylcholine antagonist, blocks receptor on motor tissues so they can't pick up thereception from acetylcholine. Causes paralysis◦ Neuro-muscular junction- Epinephrine - adrenaline, endocrine system (hormone system), both hormone and neurotransmitter◦ When travels through neuron – neurotransmitter◦ When released form adrenal gland - hormone◦ Excitatory or inhibitory. When it comes across synapse and receptors react, could be either more or less active. More or less likely to send neurotransmitter.- Norepinephrine - found in the brain◦ Leads to REM sleep – rapid eye movement◦ Leads to the feeling of pleasure/reward- Dopamine - found throughout central nervous system◦ Motor pathway – control movement▪ Voluntary control of movement◦ Meso-limbic pathway – related to schizophrenia◦ Reward pathway – anything you do something that furthers your survival sends a signal of pleasure. Dopamine and norepinephrine flowing though. Help the individual and species to survive◦ Dopamine agonist – ex: methamphetamine, cocaine◦ Nonadaptive part-drugs. Drugs can mimic▪ Tolerance level – the effect wears down therefore, needing to intake more- Homeostasis – balance in the body- Neurons want a certain amount of activity running. Receptors on synapse get depleted and dry out . Cannot get more than a certain amount of activation in that part of the brain- Withdrawal symptoms – depression. Everything hurts. Receptors small and no pleasure. Agony until receptors come back to normal level of activity. ◦ Depression: linked to low level of activity in pleasure pathway▪ Giving cocaine to someone who is depressed doesn’t get them high because their receptors are already depleted.▪ Anti-depressants take forever to work because it must build up receptors in the brain.- Serotonin - non-REM sleep◦ Found throughout the central nervous system◦ Modern anti-depressant drugs ◦ Serotonin antagonist◦ Psychedelic drugs work on serotonin pathway- GABA - major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system◦ Exert inhibition◦ Alcohol –inhibit their inhibitory neurons – disinhibition▪ Disinhibition – removal on inhibition▪ Behavioral outcome▪ Act out things that people want to do, but is inhibited to do so- Opium - piston stamen◦ Morphine and codeine ◦ Endorphin – chemically identical to morphine - Anandamide - “bliss,” THC receptor, identical to marijuana◦ Brain engineered around drugsNervous System- Peripheral – every neuron not in the brain + spinal cord- Central – the brain + spinal cordPeripheral Nervous System (PNS)- Somatic Nervous System (skeleton)◦ Conscious part, voluntary- Automatic Nervous System, no controlAutomatic Nervous System1. Sympathetic response – fight or flight- Pupils dilate, salivary glands stops, sweating begins- Raises heart rate and blood pressure- Releases glucose and fat for high energy- Decreases digestive


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BU PSYC 111 - CHAPT. 5 – Psychological Psychology

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