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UNC-Chapel Hill BIOL 101 - Guided Reading Q’s (Lesson 7)

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Guided Reading Q’s (Lesson 7)Cellular RespirationStage 1: Glycolysis1. What is substrate level phosphorylation?The formation of ATP by an enzyme when it transfers a phosphate group from a substratemolecule directly to ADP2. How many ATP form in glycolysis by this?23. How many pyruvates form in glycolysis?24. Each pyruvate has how many carbons?35. Electrons are passed to __________ which is reduced to become NADH.NAD+6. How many NADH form from glycolysis? (these will hold/shuttle elections to the third stage)2Stage 2: Pyruvate Oxidation and Citric Acid Cycle1. What three mini steps occur as each pyruvate is “groomed” before the citric acid cycle?A carboxyl group is removed from pyruvate and given off as a molecule of CO2 … the two-carbon compound remaining is oxidized while a molecule of NAD+ is reduced to NADH … a compound called coenzyme A joins with the two-carbon group to form a molecule called acetyl coenzyme A2. Pyruvate loses a carbon which is released in the form of what?CO23. Electrons reduce NAD+ to form what?NADH4. A coenzyme called _______ joins the two carbon compound to form ________.A … acetyl coenzyme A5. As a two-carbon acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle a series of reactions begin. Ultimately, the two carbons are released in the form of ________. Electrons from the intermediate reactions are reduced and NAD+ to form how many NADH? _______. FADis also reduced to form one _________. Substrate level phosphorylation forms _____ ATP.CO2 … 3 … FADH2 … 1Stage 3: Oxidative Phosphorylation1. Stages 1 and 2 only produced a total (net gain) of ___ ATP per glucose molecule so far. (A total of 32 electrons can be made.)42. Electron transport proteins (electron carriers) and ATP synthase are located where?Inner membrane of the mitochondria3. Follow the electrons in Fig 6.9 as they are oxidized from NADH and FAD2. What ultimately happens to those electrons?Each oxygen atom accepts 2 electrons from the chain and pick up 2H+ from the surrounding solution, forming H2O4. Besides passing electrons to each other through and electron transport chain, what else dothese proteins do? (follow the green arrows)The protein complexes use the energy released from electron transfers to actively transport H+ across the membrane, from where it is less concentrated to more concentrated (active transport)5. Describe the significance of the gradient of H+?It stores potential energy6. How do the H+ relate to ATP formation? (be sure to use the words chemiosmosis and ATP synthase in your answer)The H+ concentration gradient across the membrane stores potential energy. The ATP synthase built into the inner mitochondrial membrane act like mini turbines with the rush of H+ ions down their concentration gradient turning the wheels. The turning wheels catalyze the phosphorylate ADP to ATPScientific thinking1. What is the difference (in terms of metabolic activity and organelles) between white fat and brown fat?White fat is ordinary body fat that has little metabolic activity. Each cell is filled with a single droplet of fat … brown fat actively burns energy. It is named for its color, which comes from the brownish mitochondria that back its cells2. Brown fat, burns fuel and produces heat but does not produce _______. (As we would expect during cellular respiration).ATP3. Up until recently, we thought only human ________ had brown fat.New borns4. What did the PET scans tell the scientists about the presence of brown fat in adult males? In adult females?Showed that 3% brown fat was found in adult males and 7.5% brown fat was found in adult females. Showed us that brown fat was more prominent in thinner people and during colder weather5. True or false (explain your answers)a. Brown fat is activated to become metabolically active in hot weather.False … brown fat is actually more common in cold weather because it is heat-producing and therefore helps people (mostly infants) stay warmb. Lean people (BMI less than 25) have more brown fat than overweight people.True … thinner people have a higher amount of brown weight than overweight or bigger people who could be considered obese do- How might this new information be applied to weight lossSince brown fat is heat-producing researchers believe that brown fat could essentially help people be thinner. Researchers have done a lot of research on mice by exposing themto cold weather. Throughout the experiment, it has been discovered that there is a third type of fat that was stimulated by the cold, which function like brown fat does. Increasingthe amount and activity of brown fat and beige cells has the potential to burn excess fat, so researchers are trying to use this to treat people with obesity and type 2 diabetes.6. How much ATP is gained from one glucose molecule during:a. Glycolysis? 2b. Citric Acid Cycle? 2c. Oxidative phosphorylation? (about) 287. Some poisons block oxidative phosphorylation, yet a small amount of ATP can be made in the presence of these poisons. Explain.ATP can be made from fermentation, which is a way of harvesting energy that does not require oxygen. Fermentation is similar to glycolysis as it allows there to be a net gain of a little ATP.Fill in the blanks: Fermentation Pathways (Anaerobic)- Anaerobic pathways operate when oxygen is absent (or limited). Glycolysis is the first stage to yield 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 glucose. In the absence of oxygen, the reduced coenzyme used in glycolysis, NAD+, cannot donate its electrons to the electron transfer chain. Once it is oxidized, we call it NADH.1. Why do our muscle cells sometimes use lactic acid fermentation?When the need for ATP outplaces the delivery of O22. What is “regenerated” during the process that can then be used again for glycolysis?NAD+3. Examine fig 6.12 A and B. What are the differences between lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation?In lactic fermentation NAD+ regenerated as pyruvate is reduced to lactate … in alcohol fermentation NAD+ regenerated as pyruvate is broken down into CO2 and ethanol4. What do you think you would need to make beer/wine?5. Without digging into any details of Modules 6.14, use figure 6.14 to explain why food with components other than glucose can be resources for making ATP. For example, how do proteins and fats make ATP?Proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids which are used in glycolysis in producing acetylCoA and the citric acid cycle, and fats are hydrolyzes into carbon fragments that enter thecitric


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