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UNC-Chapel Hill BIOL 101 - A Tour of the Cell

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Guided Reading Qs (Lesson 3)A Tour of the Cell1.Put these in size order: bacterium, human liver cell, ribosome, insulin (a protein), human egg, a carbon atomSmallest-largest: A carbon atom, insulin, ribosomes, bacterium, human liver cell, human egg2.A.)Why can’t cells get very big?The biggest size of a cell in influenced by geometry—the need to have a surface area large enough to service the volume of a cellB.)As cell increases, what happens to its surface-to-volume-ratio?It decreases3.What is the structure and function of the plasma membrane?The structure of the plasma membrane is very flexible and extremely thin. The function of the plasma membrane, also known as the cell membrane, is to form a flexible boundary around the living cell and its surroundings4.What are the 2 kinds of cells in nature?-prokaryotic-eukaryotic5.All cells have some features in common (list them, define any you aren’t familiar with):They are both placed in a plasma membrane; the interior of all cells are filled with cytosol; all cells have one or more chromosomes; both contain ribosomes- Chromosomes: carry genes made of DNA- Ribosomes: tiny structures that make proteins according to instructions form the genes- Cytosol: thick jelly like fluid that fills the interior of the cell6.Draw figure 4.3 (a bacterium) for yourself. Label and be sure to define each part. Take noteof what a prokaryote cell contains, so that you can easily see what it is missing compared to a eukaryotic cell!7.Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:Plasma Membrane:membrane inclosing thecytoplasmRibosomes: structuresthat synthesis proteinsCapsule: jelly like outercoating of manyprokaryotesFlagella: locomotion organellesof some bacteriaFimbriae: attachment structures on thesurface of some prokaryotesNucleoid: region where thecell’s DNA is locatedCell wall: rigid structure outsidethe plasma membraneEukaryoticProkaryotic Plasma membrane CytosolChromosomes Ribosomes- the first to evolve- bacteria- archaea- smaller and simpler in structure- have a membrane enclosed nucleous- all forms of life (excluding bacteria and archaea)8.What is the advantage for the cell in having “compartments” within a eukaryotic cell?The advantage of a cell having compartments within a eukaryotic cell is that’s where many of thecells chemical activities called cellular metabolism take place9.Compare and contrast a plant cell and an animal cell. Examine diagrams of typical organelles of plant and animal cells, what differences do you see?10.Genetic Control of the cell: The Nucleus and ribosomesA.)Name and sketch the structure that matches the functional description of each component below:1. The cell’s genetic instructions inside the nucleus: DNA2. A barrier separating the cell’s genetic information from the cell’s cytosol: chromatin3. How materials enter and exit the nucleus: nuclear envelopePlant Cells Animal CellsCell membraneMitochondriaNucleus- cell wall- chloroplast (where photosynthesis takes place)- central vacuole- plasmodesmata- flagella-shape is more rigidNuclear envelopeChromatin Endoplasmic rectumNucleolusB.)A cell with many ribosomes tells you what about this cell’s function?They make a lot of proteinC.) What is the difference between proteins that are made on either:- Free ribosomes in the cytosol: they function within the cytosol. Examples are enzymes that catalyze the first steps of sugar breakdown for cellular respirationOr- Ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope: they make proteins that will be exported from the cell11.Energy converting organellesA.)What is the function of Mitochondria?Organelles that carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells. They use O2 and release CO2 in transforming the chemical energy of foods to a form (ATP) that can be used for cellular work- Do prokaryotes have?No- Do animal cells have?Yes- Do plant cells have?YesB.)What is the function of chloroplasts?They are the photosynthesizing organelles of plants and algae. They convert solar energy to chemical energy- Do prokaryotes have?No- Do animal cells have?No- Do plant cells have?YesC.)Draw pictures of both a mitochondrion and a chloroplast (as the structure of these become very important to our discussion of cellular respiration and photosynthesisThylakoidGranumStromaInner and outermembraneOuter membrane Mitochondrial matrixInner membraneIntermembrane spaceD.)What are the names of each compartments/spaces? (Be sure to label them on your drawings) How many phospholipid bi-layers are in each?Chloroplast: inner and outer membrane, stroma, thylakoid, granum Mitochondria: outer membrane, intermembrane space, inner membrane, mitochondrial mix (2 phospholipid bi-layers)12.A.)What is the function of the cytoskeleton?Protein fibers in the cytoplasm that act like a skeleton in providing structural support as well as movementB.)Name 3 fibers that make up the cytoskeleton-microtubules; the thickest fiber-microfilaments; the thinnest fiber-intermediate filaments; medium amount of thickness13.Why does cell structure and function matter? Many diseases are based in defective cellular structures or macromolecular components. Let’s explore one disease where lung cells and a few other cells of the body malfunction: Cystic FibrosisA.)How does someone get cystic fibrosis?It is genetic. It is an inherited disorder. Caused by mutation in the CFTR geneB.)What is the median age of survival now?37C.)Major symptoms associated with the disease are:-thick mucusD.)The first line of drugs that helped improve the quality of life did what?Makes the mucus thinner and easier to expelE.)What’s the link in this article to UNC?Doctors at UNC are testing an experimental drug called VX-770 that fixes the problem of the lungs becoming so dehydratedF.)What does a CFTR modulator do?It regulates the proper flow of chloride and sodium (salt) in and out of cells lining the lungs and other


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