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UNC-Chapel Hill BIOL 101 - Structure/Function of Macromolecules

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Guided Reading Q’s (GRQs) – Lesson 2Structure/Function of MacromoleculesChapter 21. List the molecular bond types- Covalent Bonds- share electrons (1, 2, or 3 pairs); can be VERY strong. o Two Types: Nonpolar covalent bonds- electrons shared equally - Example- Carbon- Hydrogen Polar covalent bonds- electrons are not shared equally creating “poles” aslightly negative and slightly positive end- Example- Oxygen- Ionics bonds- electrons are not sharedo Example of a molecule using these bonds Sodium- Hydrogen bonds- attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen (from a polar molecule)and a slightly negative atom (from a different polar molecule) o Properties of this kind of bond Weak, between positive and negativeo Example Between 2 H2O molecules2.A.)In photosynthesis, CO2 and H2O are the reactants. What are the products?Glucose and oxygenB.)Has matter been created or destroyed?Not recreated or destroyed, it just rearrangedChapter 3 11. A.)What is an organic compound?Carbon based molecules. They usually contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbonB.)Which one of these is an organic compound? WaterCarbon dioxideGlucose2.What does the word hydrophilic mean?“Water-loving”; pertaining to polar or charges molecules (or parts of molecules) that aresuitable in water 3.Think about making a necklace with small beads. Use the necklace as an analogy to usethe words macromolecule, monomer, polymer, dehydration reaction, and hydrolysis insentences.3 of the main 4 classes of molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids) are calledmacromolecules. Think of macromolecules as a beaded necklace. Cells make theirmacromolecules by joining smaller molecules, called polymers, into chains. The polymers inthis process is just like each individual bead on the beaded necklace. The material that eachbead is made out of, is just like monomers. Monomers are the building blocks of polymers.Cells link the monomers together to make polymers by a dehydration reaction. Look at thedehydration reaction as the string that hold the beads all together that links everything to oneanother. Hydrolysis is the digestive process that digests the polymers to make the monomersavailable to your cells. I look at hydrolysis as the latch that opens and closes the necklace.You are breaking it down to make the necklace available for you to wear. 4.A.)Dr. Hogan (of European descent) is lactose intolerant and must pop a few pills beforeeating her favorite chocolate ice cream. What is she missing?EnzymesB.)What is in those pills? The enzyme lactaseC.)Americans of what descent are most likely to be lactose intolerant?2Asian Americans (90%)African Americans and Native Americans (80%)5.A.)The monomers of carbohydrates are: ____________________. MonosaccharidesB.)Name a few from the reading:Glucose, FructoseC.)The use of sugars as both energy resources and organic building blocks clearlyillustrates one of our five themes of life:Energy and matter6.Describe how two monosaccharides are joined and what forms when they arechemically joined:2 monosaccharides monomers are joined by a dehydration reaction. One monomer gives up ahydroxyl group and the other gives up a hydrogen atom; a disaccharide is formed7.A.)How much sugar does the typical American consume daily?22 teaspoonsB.)Yearly?26 bags a yearC.)What correlation has the NHANES study made with increased sugar consumption? They had a study with 11,733 participants over 15 years. The dataanalysis showed that the participants who consumed more than 25% oftheir daily calories from added sugars were almost 3x as likely to die as aresult of cardiovascular disease8.A.)List and describe each of the four polysaccharides discussed in 3.7:3Next to each, describe if it is from a plant or animal. Does it function as a“storage” or a “structural” polysaccharide? - Starch: a storage polysaccharide in plants. Starch molecules coil into a helical shape andmay be unbranched or branched- Glycogen: animals store glucose in a polysaccharide. Most of your glycogen isstored as granules in your liver and muscle cells- Cellulose: the most abundant organic compound on Earth. It is a majorcomponent of the tough walls that enclose plant cells. Cellulose moleculesare joined by hydrogen bonds, forming cable-like micro fibrils- Chitin: a structural polysaccharide used by insects and crustaceans tobuild their exoskeleton. It is also found in the cell walls of fungi9.Most carbohydrates and biological molecules are hydrophilic. What chemical propertyis shared by lipids?They are hydrophobic. “Water-fearing”. They do not mix well with water10.A.)What are the monomers of a triglyceride (fat) molecule?Glycerol and fatty acidsB.)Make simple drawings (cartoon like, not chemical) of a saturated triglyceride vs. unsaturated triglyceride:C.)Compare and contrast unsaturated and saturated fats in terms of structure andwhere they can be found. 4Saturated Unsaturated- A fatty acid whose hydrocarbon chaincontains one or more double bonds- Most animal fats - Their hydrocarbon chains—the “tails” oftheir fatty acids—lack double bonds andthus pack closely together, making themsolid at room temperature- A fatty acid that has no doublebonds in its hydrocarbon chain- the fats of plants and fishes- The kinks in their tails preventthem from packing tightlytogether. - Usually liquid at roomtemperature and are referredto as oils.11.A.)What is the main function of fats? Energy storageB.)Why do plants use starch for energy storage whereas animals use fats?For plants, bulky storage from starch doesn’t matter; mobile animals (humans) can movearound much easier carrying their food reserves in the form of fat12.Module 3.9 is a Scientific Thinking Module in which you get to read about real studiesand the data produced from them. A.)What was the hypothesis of the experimental study described? Trans fats adversely affect cardiovascular healthB.)What are the limitations of this kind of experimental study in humans?If the study continued to proceed without controlled feeding then participants could haveheart attacks or other serious health issues/diseasesC.)What is the limitation of retrospective observational studies with humans and diet?People may not accurately remember and report their dietary histories; anyone who


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