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UNC-Chapel Hill BIOL 101 - Energy and Enzymes and Cellular Respiration

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Guided Reading Questions (Chapter 6)Energy and Enzymes and Cellular Respiration1.A.)The two basic forms of energy are:- Kinetic energy- Potential energyB.)Match each type of energy to one of these two forms you listed above”- The spinning movement of a protein as protons move through its channelsKinetic- The energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucosePotential- The release of heat from your body as you exerciseKinetic- The sunlight that powers photosynthesisPotentialC.)Energy in the universe can be transferred or transformed but it cannot be created ordestroyed.2.Why is a plant cell thought of as an energy transformer?Plant cells convert light energy to chemical energy3.A.)How is burning fuel in your car or burning wood similar to how your body uses fuel?How is it different?B.)Define cellular respiration: Harvesting of energy from food molecules4.Fill out the table below:List the reactants. Are these “energy-rich” or “energy-poor”?List the products.Are these “energy-rich” or “energy-poor”?PhotosynthesisCO2 + water + sunlightEnergy poorO2 + sugar moleculesEnergy richCellular RespirationGlucose and oxygenEnergy richCO2 + water + ATPEnergy poor5.How do the structures of ATP and ADP differ?ATP has 3 phosphate and ADP has 2 phosphate6.A.)How does phosphorylation lead to cellular work?Work is done from the transfer of the phosphate molecule B.)What are examples of “cellular work”?Chemical, mechanical, transport7.A.)What does the activation energy of a chemical reaction specifically do to reactants?Amount of energy needed for reactant molecules to move up hill to a higher energyB.)What do enzymes do to the activation energy?Unstable state so that the downhill reaction can begin8.Draw a graph with two lines. One line will represent a reaction without an enzyme andthe other will represent an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Your Y-axis should be labeled asincreasing energy and your X-axis should be labeled “progress of reaction”. Be sure tolabel the activation energy for both reactions.9.True or False?Enzymes are consumed in reactions.FalseEnzymes are always proteins.False“Substrate” is another word for reactant.TrueEnzymes are specificTrueAn enzyme may have multiple types of active sites to bind multiple types of substrates.False10.What conditions do most enzymes work best at?Most human enzymes work best in specific temperatures. They work best at 35 – 40°C (94 – 104°F)11.The cereal you ate this week, even if it was Fruit Loops, contained metals found on theperiodic chart such as zinc and iron. What are these metals doing in your cereal? Andwait…is there a connection between chemistry and biology???They are the inorganic cofactors of enzymes. Cofactors are a non-protein molecule or ion thatis required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Yes there is a connection betweenchemistry and biology … our body uses organic molecules, ions, and raw materials to helpour nutrition 12.Examine figure 5.15. Explain in your words what this illustration describes, being sureto define all the vocabulary words from this illustration.13.The books discusses how the same enzyme that transmits nerve impulses can be inhibited in insects and lead to death but when inhibited in a slightly different way in humans can be used as anesthesia for surgical procedures. What is the difference in this inhibition?It determines on whether or not the enzyme is reversible or irreversible. If the inhibitor binds to the enzyme with covalent bonds, the inhibition is usually irreversible. When weak chemical interactions bind inhibitor and enzyme, the inhibition is reversible.Chapter 61.A.)How does energy cycle through an ecosystem, as shown in Figure 6.1?Energy comes from the sun and is used in photosynthesis to rearrange the atoms of carbon dioxide and water. This produces organic molecules and releases oxygen. In cellular respiration, oxygen is consumed as organic molecules are broken down carbon dioxide and water, and the cell captures the energy released in ATP.B.)What is different about how matter cycles? Matter is recycled. The carbon dioxide and water released by cellular respiration are converted through photosynthesis to sugar and oxygen, which are then used in respiration.C.)What organisms can perform cellular respiration?Almost all eukaryotic cells2.Deep breath in…. deep breath out.A.)How is breathing related to cellular respiration?Because respiration refers to an exchange of gases. When organisms breathe. We obtain oxygen from the environment and then release it as carbon dioxide as a waste product.B.)What is the chemical equation for cellular respiration? Glucose + O2  CO2 + H2O + ATPC.)Only 34% of the energy is captured from the bonds stored in glucose. What happens to a lot of the energy originally stored in glucose?It is lost as heat 3.Late night pizza run in the dorms—you have already eaten plenty for the day so these two slices are “extra” that you promise to burn off tomorrow in the gym with some walking around campus. If each pizza slice is about 475kcal, and you weigh approximately 150lbs, how many hours will you walk around campus at 3mph? ____6 miles for 2 hours4.Ultimately electrons are passed from glucose to oxygen. A.)Glucose is oxidized/reduced?Oxidized B.)Oxygen is oxidized/reduced? Reduced C.)What happens to the energy lost through these electron transfers?Some of the energy lost is captured by cells and used to make ATP5.A.)Co-enzymes are a bit like taxi drivers in the process picking up and releasing electrons. When NAD+ gains electrons from glucose and other molecules, we say it has been ______. It is now in the form NADH (it has picked up one proton from hydrogen too).ReducedB.)When NADH gives up (loses) these electrons to the electron transport chain we say that this molecule has been ________________. Oxidized Let’s end this set of GRQs with the overview of cellular respiration in eukaryotes. Be attentive todetails like the color coding that your book uses. You will see these same symbols/colors in theanimation too.Overview: in a eukaryoteA. Stage 1: Glycolyis: occurs where in the cell? CytosolGlucose is split into two molecules of a 3-carbon compound called pyruvateIs any ATP made? NoB. Stage 2: Pyruvate Oxidation and Citrus acid cycle. This takes place where in the cell? MitochondriaPyruvate is now broken ultimately to carbon dioxide (a one-carbon compound) which you eventually breathe out.Is any ATP made?


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