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UNC-Chapel Hill BIOL 101 - Cell Signaling with Hormones

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Guided Reading Questions (Lesson 5)Cell Signaling with Hormones1.A.)What two type of signals does the body use to communicate?Chemical and electrical signalsB.)How do they affect different responses in the body?They maintain body functions and release chemical signals called hormones. 2.What does a target cell have that allows it to respond to a hormone secreted from a distant gland that a non-target cell is lacking?Receptors3.List and describe the three stages of hormone signaling:Reception occurs when a hormone binds to a specific receptor protein on or in the target cell. Signal transduction is the binding of a signal molecule to a receptor protein triggers events within the target cell that converts the signal from one form to another. The response is the change in the cells behavior4.Are hormone receptors on the plasma membrane or inside cells?Both; depends if it is a water-soluble hormone or a lipid soluble hormone5.Draw a quick diagram outlining the differences between: water-soluble hormone signaling vs. lipid soluble hormone signaling6.Why can steroid hormones pass through the plasma and nuclear membranes?The hormone is lipid soluble7. Scientific Thinking module:A.)What hypothesis were the scientists testing?Long term exposure to low levels of atrazine during development has a negative impact on reproductive function in amphibiansB.)What were the control and experimental groups?Control- frogs not exposed to atrazineExperimental- frogs exposed to atrazineC.)What was the independent variable?Level of atrazine exposed to frogsD.)Dependent variables?Negative effects on reproductive function in amphibiansE.)What were the results?More males in the atrazine-exposed group experienced testosterone deficiencies than did those in the control groupF.)This was a controlled laboratory study—does it have any implications for the real-world environment?Estrogen is predominant in females and testosterone is predominate in males8.A.)What are the three major categories of sex hormones? Estrogen, progestin, androgenB.)Do males have estrogen? Do females have testosterone?Yes and yes9.What happens when testosterone is made but cannot bind its receptor inside the cell?They are born with external female genitalia with testes in the abdomen10.What are some ways testosterone affects other animals besides humans?Aggression and behaviors11.A.)What organ secretes insulin and glucagon?Pancreas B.)What are the target cells of insulin?Nearly all cellsC.)What affect does insulin have on cells? Prevent high blood sugar and regulates the cellD.)What are the target cells of glucagon?Liver cells12.A.)Diabetes (as a group of diseases) affects 1 in 10 Americans.B.)What is diabetes?Too much sugar in the blood13.A.)Compare and contrast the differences in hormone signaling defects in type 1 vs type 2 diabetes:Insulin is unable to enter the cell resulting in accumulation of glucose in the bloodB.)What condition occurs if too much insulin is produced or injected?Low blood sugar14.Listen to a 13-min interview with Raleigh author, Tim Anderson, about his book, Sweet Tooth and answer these questions as you listen:A.)What were the first signs for Tim that he was developing type 1 diabetes? How old was he?15; blood sugar and hormones went wildB.)On the night he was brought to the ER, what behavior during that day made his sugar level so incredibly high? Excessive coke connsumptionC.)What does he mean when he says the first few years were the “honeymoon period” of diabetes?When the pancreas is producing some insulin but not enoughD.)What were some of the symptoms he describes associated with too much insulin (hypoglycemia)?Talk nonsense, sweat, and fall out of bedE.)He talks about educating people to some degree by writing this book because most people misunderstand diabetes because they don’t realize its more than just injecting insulin--it is a complex, “_________ act”.BalancingF.)How did #showmeyourpump come about? What is a pump?Began with Miss Idaho contestant; pump releases insulin when neededG.)Describe the nurse that took care of Tim in his first week:Straightforward and not very compassionateH.)Tim hated pricking his finger for blood readings then, but now he easily does this ____ times per day.8 to 10 times a dayI.)Tim’s story of “accepting his new life with diabetes” was complicated by what else that he was also learning to accept about himself?His sexualityDiversity Focus; Read: The origins of Transgender: Hormones and Gender Identity1.Early in the article, the author explains that the article is going to take a binary perspective.What does the author mean by this and what is being excluded by taking this perspective?Aimed to avoid getting into the various intersex combinations of chromosomes2.What happens at 7 weeks to a human XX embryo? A human XY embryo?XY- formation of testisXX- formation of ovaries3.What is different about hormone blasts at birth between XX and XY embryos?XY receives a second blast of testosterone while XX does not4.What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and why was studying these female childrenimportant to Professor Melissa Hine’s research? What did Dr. Hines find?It is a genetic disease that causes girls to have a high exposure to testosterone. She found girls withthis disease were just as likely to pick a boyish toy as a boy control group5.Based on the work of Catherine Dulac, what would you predict would be the adult behavior(male sexual behavior or female sexual behavior) for each of these scenarios with mice?- A male mouse not exposed to a testosterone blast at birth but is exposed to testosterone as an adult?Lower male sexual behavior- A male mouse exposed to a testosterone blast at birth and is exposed to testosterone as an adult?High sexual behavior- A female mouse exposed to testosterone blast at birth but exposed to estrogen as an adult?Normal female sexual behavior- A female mouse NOT exposed to testosterone blast at birth and exposed to estrogen as an adult?Normal female sexual behavior6. What is the take-home message of the article?The importance of the exposure of different sex hormones at


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