SC PSYC 101 - Final Exam Study Guide (12 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


A study guide for the final exam on lectures 30-38

Study Guide
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Psyc 101 - Intro to Psychology
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PSYC 101 1nd Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 30 38 Lecture 30 November 12 What is the DSM V DSM IV Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition i Clinically significant dysfunction ii Internal source iii Involuntary manifestation What are the classes of disorders Anxiety Generalized Panic OCD Phobias Mood Depression Mania Bipolar Schizophrenia Personality Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Anxiety Disorders distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety b Generalized Anxiety Disorder continually tense and uneasy for no apparent reason c Panic Disorder sudden intense dread Tony Soprano d Phobias irrational avoidance of a specific object or situation snakes heights crowds e Obsessive Compulsive Disorder unwanted repetitive thoughts obsessions and or actions compulsions i Compulsions reduce anxiety caused by obsessions How do anxiety disorders develop Learning Perspective i ii iii iv Fear Conditioning Stimulus Generalization Reinforcement Observational Learning Biological Perspective i Evolution we are scared of what our ancestors were scared of ii Genes iii Physiology unusually high frontal lobe activity Schizophrenia disorganized and delusional thinking disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions a Positive Symptoms hallucinations delusions bizarre behavior incoherence disassociated thoughts illogically b Negative Symptoms toneless voice expressionless face rigid posture blunted affect apathy social withdrawal How does schizophrenia develop Causes of Schizophrenia a Brain Abnormalities i Dopamine over activity ii Brain anatomy 1 Low frontal lobe activity thalamus shrunken brain tissue iii Maternal virus during pregnancy b Genetics identical twins have a 50 chance of being schizophrenic if their twin is c Psychological Factors reaction to stress Lecture 31 November 14 What causes a mood disorder Biological Social Cognitive Influences Mood Disorders Emotional Extremes a Depression Feelings of worthlessness decreased pleasure interest depressed mood b Manic Episode hyperactive wildly optimistic state c Bipolar Disorder alternating depression and mania Causes of Mood Disorders a Biological Influences i Genetics ii The Brain 1 Low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine drugs ex Prozac Zoloft and Paxil increases serotonin 2 Less active brains 3 Hippocampus b Social Cognitive Perspective outlook on life can influence your mood vicious cycle negative thoughts create negative moods and negative moods create negative thoughts Personality Disorders Personality Disorders Behavior patterns that impair social functioning ex histrionic narcissistic borderline personality disorder a Antisocial Personality Disorder psychopath i Lack of conscience ii May be ruthless aggressive con artists very charming As young children antisocial adolescents tended to be impulsive uninhibited unconcerned with social rewards low in anxiety What are the clinical diagnostic tools Clinical Diagnostics Tools a b c d e f g h Interview clients family friends History family and medical history Direct Observation IQ Tests WAIS Personality Tests MMPI Big Five Projective Tests Rorschach DAPT Brain Imaging CAT Scan PET MRI DSM IV Lecture 32 November 17 What are the psychological therapies Behavior Therapies Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning a Systematic Desensitization b Aversive Conditioning Operant Conditioning a Token Economy Cognitive Therapies Cognitive Behavior Therapies Humanistic Therapies a Carl Rogers Client Centered Therapy Gestalt Therapy Psychoanalysis Psychodynamic Eclectic Group Family Therapy Behavior Therapies What are each used for and how do they work Behavior Therapies apply learning principles to eliminate unwanted behaviors classical operant conditioning does not deal with underlying problem only focuses on behavior Classical Conditioning anxiety disorders a Systematic Desensitization an exposure therapy that associates a relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli Example Snake Phobia i First relax imagine a snake Second show pictures of snake Third video Fourth toy snake etc Goal be able to handle a snake ii Ex video of arachnophobia virtual spider iii Ex PTSD patients placed in stimuli with smells sounds virtual images etc re experience through stimulator yet nothing happened b Aversive Conditioning replacing a positive response with a negative response i Antabuse alcohol Operant Conditioning a Token Economy giving rewards for desired behaviors What are the biomedical therapies Drug Therapies Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Lecture 33 November 19 Drug Therapies Drug Therapies i Antipsychotics used to treat psychotic disorders through blockade of dopamine ex used for schizophrenia 1 Traditional Typical only relieved positive symptoms through specific blockade of dopamine 2 D2 five different types of dopamine receptors antagonists specifically block D2 but also impacts other areas of the brain a Side Effects dizziness nausea blurred vision sexual impotence Parkinson s symptoms motor coordination tardive dyskinesia neck and head muscles If side effects are bad people stop taking their meds b See motor side effects at about 70 receptors occupancy must find sweet spot may not ever be one ex chlorpromazine Thorazine haloperidol Haldol drugs are very individualized 2 Atypical Antipsychotics reduce both positive and negative symptoms without motor side effects expensive a Different because not as specific as the antagonists impacts 5HT2 serotonin b Ex Clozapine Clozaril specific D4 receptors peaks in blood 14 hours half life 9 30 hours can cause agranulocytosis decreases white blood cell count olanzapine Zyprexa Aripiprazole Abilify DA partial agonist c Side Effects sedation weight gain constipation warnings 914 increase in risk of developing Type II diabetes elongation of QT interval heart ii Antianxiety Drugs reduce anxiety most helpful for generalized anxiety disorder not useful for phobias too specific a Ex Benzodiazepines Valium Xanax Ativan b Side Effect Lightheadedness slurred speech drowsiness physical dependence Dangerous with alcohol iii Antidepressants 1 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSRI s Prozac Paxil Zoloft a Effects serotonin only blocks presynaptic transporter of 5HT reuptake b Most commonly prescribed class of antidepressants c Good for depression and anxiety d Few anticholinergic antihistaminic side effects no sedation or

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