UGA ADSC 2010 - Finishing The Beef Industry
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ADSC 2010 Lecture 34Outline of Last Lecture I. Beef ProductionA. Cow / CalfII. ManagementA. Management Factors Affecting % Calf Crop WeanedB. Management Factors Affecting Weaning WeightC. Management Factors Affecting Annual Cow CostOutline of Current Lecture I. Stocker / BackgroundII. Feedlot / FinishingA. Traits of Economic Importance in Feedlota. Post Weaning Gainb. Feed Efficiencyc. Carcass ValueB. Economic Factorsa. Incomeb. CostsIII. Advantages of Beef Cattle ProductionIV. Disadvantages of Beef Cattle ProductionV. Beef Cattle DiseasesCurrent Lecture: - Need to pregnancy check the cows about 45-60 days after breeding season and market open cowsI. Stocker / Background- Main purpose to produce cheap weight gain - Mainly muscle and bone growth- Utilize roughages (cheaper than grains)- Pasture, crop residues, silage- Supplement with grain to achieve gains of ¾ to two lbs. / day- Stockering may last 6-12 months.- Older cows can end up being too heavy- Calf should weigh 750-900 lbs. depending on biological type- Preconditioning (45-60 day period)- Training for feedlot- Herd health is important because cattle are transported and mixedII. Feedlot / Finishing- Two types:1. Farmer / Feeder: smaller, produce own feed2. Commercial- About 1,000 head. – Over = Commercial, Under = Farmer / Feeder- About 250,000 head capacity: largest in US (Colorado) - Main purpose to fatten cattle and enhance quality and palatability- Two sites of importance:1. Subcutaneous2. Intramuscular (Marbling)- Utilize primary grains (Corn / Soybean) to attain rapid gains- 10% of US cattle finished on pasture - Finishing period lasts 100-200+ Days- Expected gain 300-600 lbs.- Expected rate of gain = 3.5-4.5 lbs. / day- GA is not a feedlot state (little corn and no packing plants)- Cattle Enter Feedlot after weaning / StockeringA. Traits of Economic Importance in Feedlota. Post Weaning Gain: growth from weaning to slaughter- In breeding cattle, focus on time from weaning (205D) to yearling (365D)b. Feed Efficiency: How many lbs. of feed to produce a lb. of gain - FE and gain are correlated= Both increase togetherc. Carcass Value: Yield and Quality Grade- Highly heritable trains (h2 x 4.0)- Yield Grade: Expected yield of edible product- Quality Grade: eating quality / palatabilityB. Economic Factorsa. Income: Value of carcass produced by slaughter cattle- Quality Grade, Yield Grade, Carcass Weightb. Costs1. Feeder Cattle is about 70% of cost2. Feed Costs are about 25% of cost3. Remainder: Interest, death loss, vet cost- Vertical coordination: share cost of cattle in feedlot, share profitIII. Advantages of Beef Cattle Production1. Convert nutrients not available for human consumption into edible producto Grass, crop residue, chicken litter, pulp2. Can utilize entire production of grains and roughages on farm3. Can utilize land unsuitable for other ag. Commodities4. Small investment in facilities / equipment (especially cow / calf)5. Small risk of loss due to animal death6. Beef: the most popular meat in the US on a boneless basisIV. Disadvantages of Beef Cattle Production1. High Capital investment in animals / lando 300 cows at $1800 hd. = $500,000o 600 acres at $2000 / acre = $1,200,0002. Slow return on investment o Purchase heifer bred (18 months) and sell calf 12-24 months later3. Inefficient utilization of high cost grains in feedlot phaseo 6-8 lbs. of feed / lbs. of graino Swine 2-3o Poultry 1-2o Catfish ~1-1V. Beef Cattle Diseases1. Brucellosis (Bang’s) – Bacterial (Brucella Abortus) – Zoonotico Undulant fever in humans / pig susceptibleo Causes abortions on or around 15 months2. Leptospirosis – bacterialo Abortions / weak calves3. Vibrosis – bacterial o Causes infertility / abortions4. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis / Para Influenza (IBR / PI3)o Respiratory disease o Abortions5. Blackleg / Malignant Edema / Enterotoxaemiao Bacterialo Clostridiumo Muscle swelling / fluid accumulation6. Pink Eye – bacterial – Moraxellao Blindness of the cornea7. Calf Scours – bacterial / viral8. Foot Rot – caused by soil bacteria (summer / heat)o Mainly muddy environments / treat by trimming and antibiotics or

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UGA ADSC 2010 - Finishing The Beef Industry

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