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ADSC 2010 Lecture 19 Outline of Last Lecture I Other Unique Features A Babies B Rumen Inoculation C Symbiosis 1 Microbes 2 Ruminants II Rumination and Eructation A Rumination B Eructation III VFA Usage Energy Requirements A Absorbed B Travel Through IV Other Nutrients A Dietary Protein B NPN C Vitamins V Genetics A General Cellular Structure a Within the Nucleus 1 Chromosomes 2 Genes 3 DNA 4 Nucleotides B Transcription and Translation a Transcription b Translation VI More about Chromosomes A Chromosome Numbers 1 Sex Chromosomes Outline of Current Lecture I Mitosis II III IV V VI VII VIII Meiosis Gametogenesis A Spermatogenesis B Oogenesis Genetic Life Cycle Gene locus Father of Genetics A Gregor Mendel B Two types of inherited traits Inheritance Multiple Allele s Current Lecture I Mitosis process of cell division where two identical daughter cells are formed with the same compliment of chromosome pairs diploid Process diploid diploid 1 Prophase 2 Metaphase 3 Anaphase 4 Telophase II Meiosis process of cell division where daughter cells sperm ova contained the number of chromosomes Process diploid haploid 1 Prophase I 2 Metaphase I 3 Anaphase I 4 Telophase I Prophase II 5 Anaphase II 6 Telophase II III Gametogenesis production of gametes A Spermatogenesis Diploid Primordial germ cell 1 spermatogonia Tetraploid Primary spermatocyte Diploid Secondary spermatocyte Haploid Spermatid 4 Mature sperm B Oogenesis Diploid Primordial germ cell Oogonia Tetra Primary Ooctye Diploid Secondary Oocyte Haploid Ootid 1 1 Ovum Cycle IV Genetic Life Cycle Genetic Life Cycle Sperm n Fertilization Zygote 2n Mitosis Mature Organism Ovum n V Gametogenesi s Gene locus specific location of gene on a chromosome Homologous chromosome same location Forms coding system that directs production of enzymes and proteins controls the development of traits Allele different form of a gene that can occur at the same locus ex Coat color of cattle B Black b red not black Homozygous alleles at homologous gene sites are identical Heterozygous alleles are not identical Genotypes genetic make up of individual determined by genes Phenotype physical expression of individuals Genotype environment phenotype Variation measurable differences VI VII VIII Father of Genetics A Gregor Mendel Austrian monk 1st to understand inheritance a Principle of segregation paired genes alleles are separated from each other and distributed in different sex cells b Principle of independent assortment alleles are separated independently into sex cells Alleles have equal change of being included in a gamete B Two types of inherited traits 1 Qualitative controlled by 1 2 genes Ex coat color horns cryptorchidism and inverted nipple 2 Quantitative affected by many genes and contain continuous variation Ex rate of gain feed efficiency milk production carcass quality fertility Inheritance each allele has different effect on phenotype A Dominant expressed allele limits other alleles B Recessive expression limited Ex coat color in Angus Two alleles B b Homozygous dominant BB black Heterozygous Bb Black Homozygous recessive bb Red Six types of mating in Angus B black b red Bull Cow BB BB BB Bb BB bb Bb Bb Bb bb bb bb Ex Horns P dominant polled we prefer polled p recessive horned no real advantages Multiple Allele s Scurred horn tissue attached to skin of polled cattle not skull

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UGA ADSC 2010 - Genetics

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