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UGA ADSC 2010 - Exam 1 Study Guide
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ADSC 2010Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 – 9***YOU NEED TO KNOW ALL OF YOUR NOTES, NUMBERS & RANKINGS.***This test is going to be at least four pages long (front & back).Lecture 1 (January 8)I. What is animal science?A. Goal- to profitably satisfy humans for food clothing, emotional well-being, shelter, fuelB. Biological Study of livestock:- Nutrition/metabolism- Genetics/ selection- Reproduction/ physiology- Growth/Development – How can we manipulate?- Production/ management – Business Side- End Product = food, clothing, milk, etc.II. Species of InterestA. Cattle = Bovine- Kingdom: Animalia- Phylum: Chordata – back bone & spinal cord- Class: Mammalia – milk, warm blooded, hair- Order: Artrodactyla – even toed hoofed animal (Back hoof with dewclaws)- Family: Bovidaw – ruminants: chew cud- **Genus: Boso Ruminant Quad. with horns that come laterally out of head- **Species: o Taurus – Continental Europe Cattleo Indicos- Africa/Asia Cattleo Bison- BuffaloB. Sheep (ovine): - K,P,C,O,F = same- Genus: Ovis- Species: AriesC. Goat (caprine):- K,P,C,O,F = same- Genus: Capra- Species: hiriusD. Swine (porcine):- K,P,C,O = same- Family: suidae – digestive system (monogastric = one stomach)- Genus: sus- wild European hog- Species: scrofa domesticus – hogs todayE. Horse (equine):- K,P,C = same- Order: perissodactyl – non-ruminant = odd number of toes- Family: Equidae- Genus: Equus (Zebras are from this same genus)- Species: Caballus (Horse) / Asinus (Donkey)F. Chicken:- K & P = same- Class: Aves – birds with wings & feathers- Order: Galliformes – short feet and beak- Family: Phasinanidae – ground dwelling birds- Genus: gallus- Species: domesticusIII. Sex Condition Terminologya. Intact & Castrated Male TableIntact Male Castrated MaleSpecies Young Mature Young MatureCattle Bull calf Bull Steer StagSwine Boar pigs Boar Barrow StagSheep Ram Lamb Ram / Buck Wether StagHorse Colt Stud / Stallion Gelding GeldingGoat Buck Buck Wether WetherChicken Cockerel Rooster / Cock Capon CaponTime it takes to mature from young to mature:- Cattle: 1 year to 2 years- Swine: 6-9 months- Sheep: 1 year- Horse: 2 years to 3 years- Goat: 1 year- Chicken: ?- Chickens testes = internalb. Female and Meat Product TableFemale Meat ProductSpecies Young Mature Young MatureCattle Heifer Cow Veal BeefSwine Gilt Sow PorkSheep Ewe Lamb Ewe Lamb MuttonHorse Filly Mare Horse MeatGoat Doe Doe Kid Goat MeatChicken Pullet Hen ChickenTime it takes to mature from young to mature: after they produce a calf- Cattle: 2 years to 3 years- Swine: 1 year- Sheep: 1 year- Horse: 3 years to 4 years- Goat: 1 yearLecture 2 (January 10) A. Beef split into two categories: a. Fed (20-24mo.) - going to supermarket/restaurant chain b. Non-fed/manufacturing beef (3-8years)- Cows from breeding heard that are not functional anymore - have tenderness problems- normally fed grass - that beef goes into ground beef (hamburgers)B. Freemartin- Beef Cattle: mixed sexed twins where the female is not reproductiveI. Human uses of animals and animal productsA. Fooda. Carcass Meatb. Organ Meat: liver, heart, kidney (not really consumed in U.S.)c. Eggsd. MilkB. Power (NOT U.S.)a. 50% of other peoples power comes from animalsC. Clothinga. Examples: Leather & WoolD. Manurea. Fertilizer: MAINLY CHICKEN!b. Energyc. BuildingsE. By-Productsa. Pharmaceuticalsb. Animal feedsc. Fat F. Research Modelsa. Examples: o baby pigs & infant nutrition (digestion system)o Removal of genes in pigs to produce a stroke to learn how to fix itG. Pleasure (emotional well-being)o Primarily in developed countrieso U.S.: 59 million dogs, 75 million cats, 9 million horsesII. World Populations in Humanso 2050= 9-10 billion people on earthIII. World Populations in LivestockA. Chickens- 20.7 billion hdo #1 consumer: Hong Kongo #2 consumer: U.S.Metric Tons CountriesAmount ofLivestock11.6 million 1. china 5.2 Billion17.1 million 2. U.S. 2.1 Billion**U.S. is the most efficient producer in chickensGO USA!!! B. Cattle- 1.4 Billion hdo #1 consumer: Argentinao #3 consumer: U.S.MetricTonsCountries Amount ofLivestock9 million 1. Brazil 213 million1.1 million 2. India 211 million12 million 3. U.S. 93 million**U.S. is the most efficient producers of cattle**GO UGA!!  C. Sheep- 1.1 Billion hdo #1 consumer: Australiao U.S.: OtherMetrictonsCountries Amount ofLivestock2.1million1. China 139 millionD. Swine- 967 Million hdo #1 consumer: Denmarko #17 consumer: U.S.MetricTonsCountries Amount oflivestock50.5million1. China 465 million10.3million2. U.S. 66 million***U.S. produces more pork per animal than china.***U.S. is the most efficient producer of pork***GO U.S.A. E. Dairy Cattle- 265 Million hdo #1 consumer: Finlando #16 consumer: U.S.MetricTonsCountries Amount ofLivestock57 million 1. India 44 million32 million 2. Brazil 23 million89 million 4. U.S. 9 million***U.S. dairy cattle are the best example of pushing an animal to its maximum productivity.F. Horses- 58.4 million hdo #1 consumer: ItalyMetricTonsCountries Amount ofLivestock28k 1. U.S. 10.2 million161k 2. China 6.8 millionLecture 3 (January 13)I. Global Food SupplyA. Cereal Grains= wheat, corn50 % calories45% proteinsB. Animal Products16% calories37% proteins- Have more proteins for humansII. Importance of Animal Protein in Human DietsA. “Biological value”- Meat has a high “biological value”- Amino acids make-up matches human requirements- Digesting muscle to make muscle  comes from amino acidsB. Essential Amino Acids- All essential amino acids are present in the correct proportions- Essential amino acids have to be present in your body for you to liveC. B-Vitamins- Animal Products are excellent sources of b-vitamins and the only natural source of vitamin b12.III. Available Food Supplies**RDA calories: Male 2,700. Female 2,000. RDA protein: Male 56. Female 44.Developed Developing WorldFood Supply % 132 96 107All Protein(g/person)99 57 69Animal Protein(g/person)54 12 23**Undernourishment- Quantity ** Malnutrition-Quality Animal Product ConsumptionA. Developing Countries3% calories10% proteinB. Developed Countries30% calories60% proteinIV. Facts- Agriculture in Developed vs. Developing Countries- Major difference: money & mechanization- About 20% of the world’s tractors in U.S.- In 2005, 2% of U.S. population fed 98%- One farmer fed 94 U.S. and 34 World Citizens


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UGA ADSC 2010 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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