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UGA ADSC 2010 - Genetics and Reproduction
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ADSC 2010 Lecture 22Outline of Last Lecture I. Mating Systems1. Radom Mating2. Inbreeding3. Outbreedinga. Relationship of heritability and heterosis for different traitsb. How do we combine selection and mating systems?II. Crossbreeding Systems1. Two Breed Terminal Cross2. Two Breed Rotational Cross3. Three Breed Rotational Cross Outline of Current Lecture I. Two Breed Rota-Terminal CrossA. AdvantagesB. DisadvantagesII. Endocrine SystemA. HormonesB. Specific Endocrine Glands1. Pituitary2. Hypothalamus3. Gonads4. Thyroid5. Adrenal Cortex6. Pancreas7. Uterus8. PlacentaIII. PituitaryA. Anterior Hormones1. Growth Hormone2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone3. Adrenocorticotrophic HormoneSteersCull heifersMarket5Herd 1Bull breed AHerd 2Bull breed BReplacement femalesReplacement femalesSteersCull heifersHerd 1Bull breed A1/3 A2/3 B2/3 A1/3 BHerd 3Bull breed COlder cowsCull cows100% of progeny4. Follicle Stimulating Hormonea. Maleb. Female5. Luteinizing Hormonea. Maleb. Female6. Prolactina. FemaleB. Posterior Hormones1. OxytocinIV. HypothalamusA. Gonadotropin Releasing HormoneB. PIF and PRFC. GHRH and GHIHD. Corticotrophin RHV. GonadsA. Gonadal Hormones1. TestosteroneCurrent Lecture: I. Two Breed Rota-Terminal CrossA. Advantages- Produce replacement females- Heterosis in females- Maximum heterosis in terminal cross calves- Can utilize complementary in terminal cross calvesB. Disadvantages- Only 67% heterosis in females and rotational calves- Requires greater number of animals to implement- Requires greater management inputII. Endocrine System: endocrine glands secrete hormones carried to other parts of the body(target organ/tissues) through the blood-streamA. Hormones: chemical substances that are carried by the blood stream to a target organ and elicit a consistent responseB. Specific Endocrine Glands1. Pituitary (anterior/posterior): base of brain2. Hypothalamus: above pituitary3. Gonads: testes/ovaries4. Thyroid: lobes on sides of larynx5. Adrenal Cortex: close to kidneys6. Pancreas: near duodenum7. Uterus8. PlacentaIII. PituitaryA. Anterior Hormones1. Growth Hormone/GH (protein)- “RBST” (bovine somatrotropin) stimulates growth of bone and muscle2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone/TSH (glycoprotein)- stimulates thyroid gland3. Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone/ACTH (protein)- stimulates adrenal cortexto secrete corticosteroids (glucorticoids) involved in energy metabolism4. Follicle Stimulating Hormone/FSH (glycoprotein)a. Male- stimulates sertoli cells in testes to initiate spermatogenesis up to secondary spermatocytesb. Female- stimulates granulose cells in ovary to enlarge and develop the follicle on ovary; acts synergistically with luteinizing hormone to stimulate estrogen production5. Luteinizing Hormone/LH (glycoprotein)a. Male- stimulates interstitial cells (leydig cells) of testes to producetestosterone (ICSH) b. Female- stimulates luteal cells on ovary- Ovulation- Formation of corpus Luteum (CL)- Stimulates progesterone production and secretionActs with FSH to produce estrogen6. Prolactin/PRL (Proteina. Female- Initiation and maintenance of lactation (mammary tissue)- Induces maternal behaviorB. Posterior Hormones1. Oxytocin (protein)- stimulates contraction of smooth muscle of uterus andoviduct and thus;- Stimulates transport of sperm and ova- Expulsion of fetus at parturition- Myoepithelial cells in mammary gland to contract and release milk- “milk letdown”IV. Hypothalamus- mainly produces releasing and inhibiting hormonesA. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone/GnRH (FSHRH/LHRH)- stimulates release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitaryB. PIF and PRF- prolactin inhibiting/releasing hormonesC. GHRH and GHIH (somatostatin)- stimulates release/inhibition of release of growth hormonesD. Corticotrophin RH- stimulates release of ACTH from anterior PituitaryV. GonadsA. Gonadal Hormones: steroid/derived from cholesterol1. Testosterone (T2): produced in leydig cells of testes (interstitial cells)- Stimulates spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules- Develops/maintains secondary (accessory) sex glands- Develops secondary sex characteristics- Increases “libido” (sexual desire)- Increase nitrogen retention (^ protein synthesis and muscle


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UGA ADSC 2010 - Genetics and Reproduction

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