UGA ADSC 2010 - Nutrients and Genetics
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ADSC 2010 Lecture 18Outline of Last Lecture I. Segments of the Ruminant Digestive SystemA. EsophagusB. Rumena. Contentsb. PapillaeC. ReticulumD. OmasumE. AbomasumOutline of Current Lecture I. Other Unique FeaturesA. BabiesB. Rumen InoculationC. Symbiosis1. Microbes2. RuminantsII. Rumination and EructationA. RuminationB. EructationIII. VFA Usage = Energy RequirementsA. Absorbed…B. Travel Through…IV. Other NutrientsA. Dietary ProteinB. NPNC. VitaminsV. GeneticsA. General Cellular Structurea. Within the Nucleus1. Chromosomes2. Genes3. DNA4. NucleotidesB. Transcription and Translationa. Transcriptionb. TranslationVI. More about ChromosomesA. Chromosome Numbers1. Sex ChromosomesCurrent Lecture: I. Other Unique FeaturesA. Babies: basically monogastrics- Esophageal groove or reticular groove allows milk to pass directly to abomasum B. Rumen Inoculation: Bacteria  Rumen- Occurs via maternal grooming, contactC. Symbiosis: organisms living together to benefit both1. Microbes: home, steady food supply, anaerobic2. Ruminants: protein, vitamins, ability to eat forageII. Rumination and EructationA. Rumination: CUD CHEWING- Regurgitation of ingest a from the reticulum followed by remastication and reswallowing B. Eructation: BELCHING- 30-50l (cattle)/hour gas production (CH4)- Removal to prevent bloating- Regulates pH- Bloating can occur from foam that encapsulates gas- Mineral oil and tubes are good ways to release gas- EXTREME CASE: Throcar = stainless steel tube with a huge needle that punctures the flank and hide into the rumen and can cause secondary infections…III. VFA Usage = Energy RequirementsA. Absorbed: Rumen (mostly), Omasum (some)- Take 2C compounds  glucose *gluconeogenesis* which is the reverse of glycolysis B. Travel Through portal blood to liver- Liver converts to glucose (energy)- Available for fatty acid synthesisIV. Other NutrientsA. Dietary Protein- Digested by microbes- Can use coatings to “bypass” rumenB. NPN- Microbes make protein (NPN + CHOs)C. Vitamins- Requires A, E, D (sunshine)- Don’t require B or K.V. Genetics: science of heredity and variation- Genetic material passes from parents (through sperm and ova) to offspring, creating a link from generation to generation- Variation: the occurrence of difference among individuals of the same speciesA. General Cellular Structurea. Within the Nucleus1. Chromosomes: carry genes2. Genes: found in fixed locationso Basic unit of inheritanceo Defined unit of DNA composed of a certain nucleotide sequenceo Bases are classified as :Purines PyrimidinesAdenine --- Thymine Guanine --- Cytosine3. DNA: double-stranded molecule composed of nucleotides4. Nucleotidesi. Pentose sugarii. Phosphateiii. Nitrogenous baseB. Transcription and Translationa. Transcription: mRNA is formed from DNA- Occurs in nucleus- mRNA: single stranded- sequence is complementary- uracil replaces thymine- very unstable - mRNA transported out of nucleus for translationb. Translation: occurs in cytoplasm- Ribosome formed (rRNA)- mRNA attaches to ribosomes, providing the base sequence for specific protein (CODON: 3 base sequence)- tRNA attaches to specific amino acid based on a 3 base sequences (ANTI-CODON)- tRNA and A.A. (anti-codon) interact with mRNA (CODON) and amino acidsare linked by peptide bonds to growing protein- Used tRNA is released- UGA: stop codon for mRNAVI. More about Chromosomes- Chromosomes form in pairs and the number of chromosomes are constant- All cells have a full set (paired) of chromosomes *diploid: 2n* except for reproductive cells *sperm/ova: haploid: n*- One originated from the female and the other originated from the maleA. Chromosome NumbersMan 2n = 46 23 pairsCattle 2n = 60 30 pairsPig 2n = 38 19 pairsHorse 2n = 64 32 pairsSheep 2n = 54 27 pairs1. Sex Chromosomes: determines the sex of the animal from XY- X is two to three times greater than Y- XY: Female- XX: Male- 50% chance of either because of the infinite number of sperm and ova

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UGA ADSC 2010 - Nutrients and Genetics

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