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COMM 415 Nonverbal Communication TERMS AND CONCEPTS FROM LECTURE THAT YOU SHOULD KNOW FOR EXAM II SPACE 1 What kind of info is conveyed through use of space regulations of conversation when we are too far from someone we can not have a conversation and when we are too close to someone we feel compelled to say something when we like someone we move closer to them attitude towards another person 2 Three categories of space e g fixed feature etc Fixed feature space location of physical unmovable structures Semi fixed feature space location of movable objects Informal or personal space interpersonal distance 3 Sociopetal vs Sociofugal space Sociopetal space is organized so it is conclusive to communication between people Ex Students and the teacher in a lecture room Sociofungal space is arranged so that it produced solitude and inhibits interaction between people Ex All the students in the lecture room 4 Four regions of proxemics e g intimate personal etc Intimate 0 18 inches Personal 1 5 4 feet Social 4 12 feet Public beyond 12 feet 5 Children s use of space age and use of space Space is unclear to children up to age 5 Children under the age 5 have no sense of personal space Children bump into someone and think nothing of it Space increases over age 5 17 Start to see difference in space ages 16 17 noticeably different When little kids we put less space between those of the same sex As we get older we begin getting closer in space with opposite sex 6 Male female differences in use of space Females maintain closer interpersonal distance than males Females approach others especially other females closer than males will Males approach other males and other females at the same distance Females will allow other to approach more closely than males will 7 Are there universals across culture in spatial use NO there is not universals in space use Appropriate amount of space is different in every culture 8 crowding vs density crowding is a PSYCHOLOGICAL phenomenon and has a psychological effect some people may fee crowded by something that others don t Density is a PHYSICAL phenomenon we can explain it in physical dimensions 9 Contact vs noncontact cultures Contact cultures are much more used to interacting closely closest cultures Irish Scottish dutch greek Italian French English Irish use the closest space and English use the furthest space Even in the same continent Europe there is a significant difference between each countries use of space 10 extraversion social anxiety need for affiliation and use of space Preferences for closer space increases with increasing degrees of extraversion People who are high in social anxiety tend to use longer interacting distance People high in need for affiliation us closer interacting distance 11 Distance and arousal The closer the invasion the sooner the evacuation Changes in skin conductance Too close a arousal For females to far also a arousal 12 The relationships between crowding and performance There is a correlation with density Curvilinear relationship between crowding and performance Middle amount of crowding makes us perform best like anxiety Close spaces with strangers is more crowding than with friends Rustemli 1992 Most crowding with male strangers least with female friends Rustemli 1992 13 Space and restaurant tipping Jacob Gueguen 2010 J Hospitality Tourism Restaurant Waitresses approached patrons seated by themselves in a restaurant in france at either 5 1 5 or 2 5 feet 478 customers 287 Male 191 Female A greater of customers in the close condition left a tip Customers in the closer condition also left higher tips than those in the other condition 14 Space and threats of violence Johnson Aaron 2013 Criminal Justice and Behavior Imagine a scenario where there was a heater argument What cues would you consider suggestive of imminent violence 1 cue assuming a boxer s stance 2 cue invasion of personal space 15 Intimacy Equilibrium Theory The balance between these two motivations is a point of equilibrium Want to be close enough to satisfy approach motivations but far enough to satisfy our avoidance motivations If one person s behavior upsets this equilibrium the other will compensate 16 Arousal Labeling Theory close distance creates arousal in the decoder if this arousal is labeled positively the decoder will reciprocate approach FACIAL EXPRESSION 1 What kind of info is carried in facial expression Known as the sign vehicles remain constant reliably change with age 2 Four different sign vehicles e g static slow etc Static Slow Like eyes sagging cheeks sagging wrinkles change very gradual Rapid Artificial age change in a matter of seconds cosmetics or facial treatments used to enhance beauty of combat 3 Slow sign vehicles and mortality 4 The 6 primary facial expressions of emotion a Happiness joy b Sadness c Anger d Surprise e Disgust f Fear 5 A universal expression for pride a Involves posture and face configuration b Happy face smile c Head tilted back d Chest out e Hands on hips or raised in the air f Children as young as 4 can identify g Isolated African tribal culture can identify 6 Facial feedback hypothesis a Muscle activity comes first and the emotion follows b What we think is what leads to our emotion c Facial feedback hypothesis comes from the pripheralist perspective d Facial muscle activity a emotion e People were happier when they were in a smile expression and angrier when they were in a frown expression 7 Facial expressions in nonhuman primates e g grimace etc a Grimace Fear b Tense mouth displays Anger c Play Face Happiness Joy 8 The Miller Deets 1976 executive monkey study a Monkey in restraining chair b Lights go off 6 seconds later delivered electric shock c Prevent shock with lever press within 6 seconds d Lever was taken away from stimulus monkey and given to responder monkey e Responder monkey also hooked up to shock f Responder monkey could only see face of stimulus monkey on TV g Responder monkey prevented the shocks at a rate of 92 of the time just from watching the face of the stimulus monkey h So we can conclude monkeys can understand each others emotion just from their facial expressions 9 Can domestic dogs decode human facial expression a Dog used the experimenter s happy facial expression to locate the hidden food went to box associated with happy face vs disgust face 55 of the time so that s 22 more than chance 10 Infants use of facial expression a Facial muscles formed at birth b Distinct expression early in

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UA COMM 415 - Study Guide

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