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COMM 415Nonverbal Communication TERMS AND CONCEPTS FROM LECTURE THAT YOU SHOULD KNOW FOR EXAM II –SPACE1. What kind of info is conveyed through use of space?- regulations of conversation- when we are too far from someone we can not have a conversation, and when we are too close to someone we feel compelled to say something- when we like someone we move closer to them- attitude towards another person2. Three categories of space (e.g., fixed-feature, etc.)Fixed-feature space: location of physical unmovable structuresSemi-fixed feature space: location of movable objectsInformal or personal space: interpersonal distance 3. Sociopetal vs. Sociofugal space Sociopetal: space is organized so it is conclusive to communication between peopleEx. Students and the teacher in a lecture roomSociofungal: space is arranged so that it produced solitude, and inhibits interaction between peopleEx. All the students in the lecture room4. Four regions of proxemics (e.g., intimate, personal, etc.)Intimate: 0-18 inchesPersonal: 1.5-4 feetSocial: 4-12 feetPublic: beyond 12 feet5. Children's use of space/ age and use of space-Space is unclear to children up to age 5-Children under the age 5 have no sense of personal space- Children bump into someone and think nothing of it-Space increases over age 5-17- Start to see difference in space ages 16-17 (noticeably different)- When little kids we put less space between those of the same sex-As we get older we begin getting closer in space with opposite sex6. Male-female differences in use of space-Females maintain closer interpersonal distance than males-Females approach others, especially other females, closer than males will-Males approach other males and other females at the same distance-Females will allow other to approach more closely than males will7. Are there universals (across culture) in spatial use?- NO, there is not universals in space use-Appropriate amount of space is different in every culture8. crowding vs. density-crowding is a PSYCHOLOGICAL phenomenon, and has a psychological effect-some people may fee “crowded” by something that others don’t -Density is a PHYSICAL phenomenon-we can explain it in physical dimensions9. Contact vs. noncontact cultures-Contact cultures are much more used to interacting closely-closest cultures: Irish, Scottish, dutch, greek, Italian, French, English. Irish use the closest space and English use the furthest space- Even in the same continent Europe, there is a significant difference between each countries use of space. 10. extraversion, social anxiety, need for affiliation and use of space-Preferences for closer space increases with increasing degrees of extraversion-People who are high in social anxiety tend to use longer interacting distance-People high in need for affiliation us closer interacting distance11. Distance and arousal- The closer the invasion, the sooner the evacuation - Changes in skin conductance- Too close a arousal- For females, to far also a arousal12. The relationships between crowding and performance- There is a correlation with density - Curvilinear relationship between crowding and performance-Middle amount of crowding makes us perform best (like anxiety!)-Close spaces with strangers is more “crowding” than with friends (Rustemli, 1992)-Most “crowding” with male strangers, least with female friends (Rustemli, 1992) 13. Space and restaurant tipping- Jacob & Gueguen, 2010 – J Hospitality & Tourism Restaurant-Waitresses approached patrons seated by themselves in a restaurant in france at either .5, 1.5, or 2.5 feet-478 customers (287 Male, 191 Female)-A greater % of customers in the close condition left a tip-Customers in the closer condition also left higher tips than those in the other condition14. Space and threats of violence- Johnson & Aaron, 2013 – Criminal Justice and Behavior-Imagine a scenario where there was a heater argument-What cues would you consider suggestive of imminent violence?-#1 cue: assuming a boxer’s stance-#2 cue: invasion of personal space15. Intimacy Equilibrium Theory- The balance between these two motivations is a point of equilibrium- Want to be close enough to satisfy approach motivations, but far enough to satisfy our avoidance motivations- If one person’s behavior upsets this equilibrium, the other will compensate16. Arousal-Labeling Theory- close distance creates arousal in the decoder-if this arousal is labeled positively, the decoder will reciprocate (approach) FACIAL EXPRESSION1. What kind of info is carried in facial expression? -Known as the “sign vehicles”2. Four different sign vehicles (e.g., static, slow, etc.)- Static: remain constant- Slow: reliably change with age- Like eyes sagging, cheeks sagging, wrinkles change very gradual- Rapid: change in a matter of seconds- Artificial: cosmetics or facial treatments used to enhance beauty of combat age3. Slow sign vehicles and mortality4. The 6 primary facial expressions of emotion?a. Happiness/joyb. Sadnessc. Angerd. Surprisee. Disgustf. Fear5. A universal expression for pride?a. Involves posture and face configurationb. Happy face (smile)c. Head tilted backd. Chest oute. Hands on hips or raised in the airf. Children as young as 4 can identify g. Isolated African tribal culture can identify6. Facial feedback hypothesisa. Muscle activity comes first and the emotion followsb. What we think is what leads to our emotionc. Facial feedback hypothesis comes from the pripheralist perspectived. Facial muscle activity a emotione. People were happier when they were in a smile expression and angrier when they were in a frown expression7. Facial expressions in nonhuman primates (e.g. grimace, etc.)a. Grimace = Fearb. Tense-mouth displays = Angerc. Play Face = Happiness/Joy8. The Miller & Deets (1976) "executive monkey" studya. Monkey in restraining chairb. Lights go off, 6 seconds later delivered electric shockc. Prevent shock with lever press within 6 secondsd. Lever was taken away from stimulus monkey and given to responder monkeye. Responder monkey also hooked up to shockf. Responder monkey could only see face of stimulus monkey on TVg. Responder monkey prevented the shocks at a rate of 92% of the time just from watching the face of the stimulus monkeyh. So we can conclude monkeys can understand each others emotion just from their facial expressions**9. Can domestic dogs decode human facial expression?a. Dog used the experimenter’s happy facial expression to locate the

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UA COMM 415 - Study Guide

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