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UA COMM 415 - GAZE CONTINUED

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COMM 415 1st Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last Lecture I. GazeOutline of Current Lecture II. Interactive FactorsIII. Developmental Aspects of Gazea. nonhuman primatesb. infantsc. childrend. adultsi. initiating & avoiding interactionii. emotioniii. lying & credibilityiv. relationship qualitiesv. cultural difference Current Lecture(6)Thursday, February 5, yA. decoding gaze and emotion1. ss watched video taped actors looking at or away2. asked if actors looked friendly or hostile3. PET scans while watching clips 4. the brain activates specific regions in response to direct gaze and perception of emotion5. gaze makes others’ emotions salient 6. activity in amgydala and prefrontal cortex (these pay a key role in emotion)7. similar brain regions for decoding gaze and emotion These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.A. sex differences in gaze decoding1. argyle& williams (1979)• students participated in a series of 2 minute interviews• females felt more observed than males• feeling observed was unrelated to the confederate’s level of gaze2. calogero (2004)• female students led to believe that they would soon be interaction with (male, female, no one (control group))• then completed questionnaires• those who anticipated gaze from a male reported greater body shame & social physique anxiety• self-objectification **women feel gazed at more than men**II. Interactive FactorsA. (=/+)one persons increase in gaze will reciprocate a response in increased in gazeB. one persons gaze generates greater gaze in the decoder (RECIPROCAL RESPONSE)C. (-)increased gaze in a negative setting decreases gaze in the decoder (COMPENSATORY RESPONSE)D. being observed increases arousal E. arousal is not inherently positive or negative; it is up to us to determine contextF. gaze is an attention getting behaviorIII. Developmental Aspects of GazeA. nonhuman primates1. gaze=threatB. infant gaze1. look more at adult with eyes open vs. closed 2. look more at adult with headband vs. blindfold 3. infants recorded interacting with a gazing mother or father 4. when infants displayed a vocalization in combination with a smile, they also gazed at their parent 80% of the time5. infants use a combination of vocalizations, positive facial expressions and gaze6. gaze at parent directs the expression of the emotion 7. infants direct more gaze at mother than father C. children gaze1. believed that gaze aversion in autistic children reflects an attempt to reduce external stimulation, due to already high levels of arousal2. they observed 8 male autistic children at play (Hutt & Ounstead 1966)3. they were almost always alone rather than interacting with others4. they put five drawings on the wall5. autistic children spent less time perusing the faces and spent more time gazing at more inanimate objects6. non-autistic children displayed the opposite pattern, gazing more at the human faces 7. children with ASD looked significantly less and for shorter lapses of time at the experimenter8. children with ASD looked downwards and made more extensive use of their lateral field **children with autism avoid eye contact**D. emotion and gaze1. decreases with sadness or depression2. decreases with anxiety• people with social phobia gaze less at partner than those with general anxiety or normal controls3. decreases with embarrassment (allows for disengagement)• embarrassing picture study (artistic ability)E. lying and credibility1. instructing people to lie causes no change or increased gaze 2. videotapes of criminal suspects3. had corroborating info4. when lying 55% showed more gaze aversion5. 44% showed less gaze aversion***gaze is not a reliable indicator of deception***6. 338 passengers at an international airport; told the truth or lied about their forthcoming trip7. liars displayed more deliberate eye contact than truth tellers8. gaze aversion did not differ between truth tellers and airs9. liars were more inclined than truth-tellers to report that they had displayed elaborate eye contact to convince the interviewer and to check whether the interviewer believed them F. relationship qualities1. intimacy=more gaze 2. Rubin (1970) romantic love scale—> more mutual gaze 3. couples who engage in more mutual gaze are perceived as liking each other more 4. gaze as a sign of intimacy is encoded and decoded equally G. cultural differences1. arabs engage in more gaze than americans (contact cultures)2. contact cultures=more gaze 3. blacks more gaze while talking, less while listening compared to whites 4. LIMITATION: research based on black-black


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