WVSU PSYC 151 - OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Physical dev in early and middle childhood (28 pages)

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OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Physical dev in early and middle childhood



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OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Physical dev in early and middle childhood

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Pages:
28
School:
West Virginia State University
Course:
Psyc 151 - General Psychology
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Physical Development Early and Middle Childhood Announcements Start your virtual person paper outline Experientials Outline Physical Development Physical Development in Early Childhood Physical Development in Middle Childhood Brain Development Motor Development Nutrition Exercise and Obesity Disabilities Education Physical Development in Early Childhood Body growth slows Boys vs girls Skeletal growth continues Physical Development in Middle Childhood Slow consistent growth Decreases in baby fat and increases in muscle Brain Development in Early Childhood Most rapid growth in prefrontal cortex Left hemisphere active Linking areas of the brain develop By 6 years brain is at 95 peak volume Brain Development in Early Childhood In neurons the number and size of dendrites increase Myelination continues increases the speed and efficiency of information Brain Growth During Middle Childhood Total brain volume stabilizes Synaptic pruning Increased cognitive control Attention Cognitive flexibility Motor Skill Development in Early Childhood Gross motor skills Fine motor skills Motor Development in Middle Childhood Gross Motor Skills more refined Fine motor skills improve Writing Drawing Games are more common Exercise in Early Childhood Routine physical activity should be a daily occurrence Preschool 2 hours per day Exercise in Middle Childhood US children don t exercise enough More activity linked with better health Role of parents Nutrition Eating habits important Affects their skeletal growth body shape and susceptibility to disease Obesity in Early Childhood More than 10 of 2 5 year olds are overweight By age 5 Cases of Type II diabetes overweight associated with lower self esteem Low income children of all ethnicities at greatest risk Heredity learned eating habits Obesity in Middle Childhood Overweight middle childhood children in U S 1970s 15 percent Today almost 30 percent Girls more than boys Overweight Children A Serious Concern Physical functioning Emotional Malnutrition Globally 30 of children are underweight In US 1 out of 5 do not get enough to eat Associated with low income Malnutrition can harm cognitive development long term Illness and Death Healthy time of life Leading causes of death in U S children Safety influenced by Children s own skills and behaviors Characteristics of contexts Parental smoking Parental Smoking 22 percent of children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home Develop wheezing symptoms and asthma Linked to sleep problems and sleep disordered breathing in children Children with Disabilities The scope of disabilities Educational issues 7 21 U S Children with a Disability Who Receive Special Education Services 14 of children in US overall 4 largest groups of students with a disability shown 7 22 The Scope of Disabilities Learning disability Difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language Dyslexia Dysgraphia Dyscalculia 7 23 The Scope of Disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD inattention hyperactivity impulsivity Not a learning disability though cooccurrence is frequent Number of children diagnosed has increased 7 24 Possible causes Genetics Brain damage during prenatal or postnatal development Cigarette and alcohol exposure during prenatal development Low birth weight Figure 7 4 Regions of the Brain in Which Children with ADHD had a Delayed Peak in the Thickness of the Cerebral Cortex 7 26 The Scope of Disabilities Autism spectrum disorders ASD Deficiencies in social relationships abnormalities in communication Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior 7 27 Causes of ASD Abnormalities of brain structure and or neurotransmitters Lack of connectivity Genetic factors Age of parents NOT supported by research Poor family socialization Vaccinations Educational Issues Individualized Education Plan IEP Written statement that is specifically tailored for the disabled student Least Restrictive Environment LRE Setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which nondisabled children are educated Inclusion Educating a child with special education needs full time in the regular classroom 7 29


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