WVSU PSYC 151 - OUTLINE 2015-16 241 Lecture 8 Infant Cog(1) (26 pages)

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OUTLINE 2015-16 241 Lecture 8 Infant Cog(1)



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OUTLINE 2015-16 241 Lecture 8 Infant Cog(1)

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Pages:
26
School:
West Virginia State University
Course:
Psyc 151 - General Psychology
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Infant Cognitive Development Announcements and Reminders Outline Behavioral approach Piaget Language Behaviorist Approach Babies are born to learn Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Rovee Collier Learning Remembering and Conceptualizing Attention focusing of mental resources Joint attention focusing on the same object or event by both persons Learning Remembering and Conceptualizing Imitation Meltzoff 2007 Deferred imitation Imitation after a delay of hours or days Occurs by 9 mos Learning Remembering and Conceptualizing Memory Involves retention of information over time Implicit memory Unconscious remembering Explicit memory Conscious remembering Childhood amnesia Learning Remembering and Conceptualizing Concept formation As early as 3 mos Categorization Perceptual categorization As early as 3 mos Conceptual categorization As early as 7 9 mos Piaget Schemes actions or mental representations that organize knowledge Organization is the grouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higherorder system Piaget Cognitive structures develop through 3 processes Adaptation Assimilation Accommodation Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Disequilibrium Cognitive conflict the child assimilates and accommodates to decrease conflict Equilibration mechanism by which children shift from one stage of thought to the next Cognition is qualitatively different in each stage Sensorimotor Stage 0 2 years Intelligence evidenced by motor actions Sensory motor integration the relationship of sensory inputs to motor acts Object Permanence Object exists even when out of sight Before 8 months If I drop my toy and I can t see it it is gone 8 12 months You hid my toy I m looking for it the last place I saw it After 12months You hid my toy I m looking for it Evaluating and Modifying Piaget s Sensorimotor Stage A not B error is the term used to describe the tendency of infants to reach where an object was located earlier rather than where the object was last hidden Room for debate Infants perceptual abilities are highly developed very early in development What DO infants know Research Habituation Orienting reflex infants pay more attention to novel stimuli Language Development What is language How does language develop Theories of language development Language Language Form of communication Spoken written or signed symbolic words and the rules for using them Key Milestones in Language Development First year sequence Crying at birth Cooing laughing about 6 weeks Babbling 6 months Gestures about 9 to 12 months Recognizing Language Sounds Phonemes the basic sound units of a language First words 10 to 15 months Understands more words than they can use Receptive vocabulary Spoken expressive vocabulary Vocabulary spurt 18 24 months 3 years old says 1 000 words with developing syntax Figure 3 23 Variation in Language Milestones 3 20 Two Word Utterances 18 to 24 months of age Telegraphic speech short precise words without grammatical markers Language Overextension Underextension Theories on Language Development Behaviorists language is acquired through reinforcement Noam Chomsky Language Acquisition Device LAD Humans are biologically prewired to learn language Language Influence of Family s socioeconomic status How parents talk to children Child directed speech Developmental PSYC in real life Read books to with infants Infants learn about social world Pointing at pictures enriches vocabulary Strengthen joint attention skills Virtual Person Paper Start working on it now


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