WVSU PSYC 151 - 241 Unit 4 Physical Development in Adolescence & Young Adulthood - outline (51 pages)

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241 Unit 4 Physical Development in Adolescence & Young Adulthood - outline



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241 Unit 4 Physical Development in Adolescence & Young Adulthood - outline

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Pages:
51
School:
West Virginia State University
Course:
Psyc 151 - General Psychology
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Physical Development in Adolescence Early Adulthood Work on your Virtual Person Outline Physical changes in adolescence Puberty Brain changes Sleeping Eating Sexuality Substance use and abuse Physical Development in Early Adulthood Health Sexuality Development and Puberty Adolescence the passage from childhood to adulthood Puberty Process that leads to sexual maturity or fertility period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes not a single sudden event most noticeable changes signs of increases in Physical Changes Sexual maturation height and weight Marked weight and height gains Muscular growth Facial and chest hair growth in males Pubic hair growth Breast growth in females Lower voice for both males and females Menarche Girl s first menstruation 9 5 Weight and Height and the Growth Spurt Gender differences in early adolescence Girls tend to out weigh tend to be as taller Growth spurt A rapid increase in height and weight Typically lasts about 2 years Results in common gawkiness Teens become more concern about appearance Growth Spurt begins 2 years earlier for girls Girls gain approximately 3 inches Boys gain approximately 4 inches Hormones Endocrine system s role in puberty involves interaction Hypothalamus A structure in the brain that monitors eating and sex Pituitary gland An important endocrine gland that controls growth and regulates other glands Gonads The testes in males the ovaries in females Concentrations increase dramtically Increases in certain hormones Testosterone hormone associated in boys with the development Estradiol is a type of estrogen in girls it is associated with breast uterine skeletal development What Triggers Puberty Leptin a protein produced by fat cells may be the most important signal Rising levels of leptin signal hypothalamus to stop inhibiting puberty and to set puberty in motion Thyroid and adrenal cortex secrete hormones which leads to somatic Arenarche maturation of Adrenal glands Secular Trend the timing of puberty A decrease in average of pubertal onset happening at younger ages Around 9 10 for girls 11 12 for boys Possible explanations Higher standard of living better nutrition Overweight body fat for hormones Relationship with Pheromones Pubertal or Maturational Timing Individual s Where is adolescent comparatively in sync with standards age mates being early or late Pubertal Timing effects Boys Early Maturation Positives Positive self perception More successful relations Negatives Weak identity development Late maturation Negatives Less successful adolescent relationships roles Positives Strong identity and career development Pubertal timing and girls Early maturation is a disadvantage Weigh more shorter than peers Vulnerable Have older friends More likely to smoke drink eating disorders Seek early independence from parents Outcomes Depression Anxiety Body dissatisfaction low self esteem Less likely to graduate Highschool More like to cohabitate marry early Adolescent Body Image Preoccupation is strong throughout adolescence More dissatisfied with bodies during early adolescence Girls are more dissatisfied have poorer body image Brain Development Brain Development Adolescents brains undergo significant structural changes corpus callosum thickens and this improves ability to process information prefrontal cortex doesn t finish until 18 to 25 years of age or later amygdala the seat of emotions such as anger matures earlier than the prefrontal cortex In class activity 4 1 page 61 Watch the video answer the questions and prepare for a class discussion http www youtube com watch v GPMP68QP698 Sleeping Sleep Needs Delayed sleep preference Adolescents go to bed later and sleep in later Average sleep declines to less than 8 hours at age 16 Most adolescents do not get enough sleep Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Self starvation distorted body image Bulimia Nervosa Bingeing and undoing of caloric intake on regular basis Treatment of Anorexia and Bulimia Immediate goal is to get patient to eat and gain weight Patients may be hospitalized if severely malnourished Behavior Therapy reward eating Cognitive Therapy change body image Drug Use and Abuse Substance Use Harmful use of alcohol or other drugs Dependence or Addiction Can be psychological or physiological Especially dangerous for adolescents Adolescents Drink Less Frequently Than Adults But Drink More Per Occasion Underage 12 17 Adult 26 and older 9 06 4 61 4 65 2 65 Drinking days month Usual drinks occasion Source SAMHSA National Survey on Drug Use and Direct Consequences 5 000 among youth under 21 per year Physical and sexual assaults unwanted unintended sexual activity Altered academic vocational trajectories Possible adverse effects on developing brain Alcohol Abuse in Early Adulthood 11 of men 3 of women are heavy drinkers about one third are alcoholics Genetic cultural factors Causes mental physical problems High social costs Treatment is difficult half relapse in months Adolescent Use of Time US teens have a great deal of members dramatically More time is spent is common for older teens than white teens Substance Use and Abuse Trends in Adolescence Tends in Early Adulthood Percent Using in Past Month Alcohol is the Drug of Choice Among Adolescents Grade Source Monitoring the Future 2004 Trends in Drug Use by U S Eighth Tenth and Twelfth Grade Students 2010 Sexual Behavior Average age at first intercourse Females Males 90 Americans have sex by Top reasons for NOT having sex Possibility of unwanted Factors Associated with Early Sex Early puberty Poverty Poor Risky behaviors such as History of Neglect Low Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexually transmitted infections STIs including oral genital and anal genital contact Teens Sex Education What Works Programs that encourage practices Delays initiation increases contraception use What Does Not Work do not delay initiation Teenage Pregnancy Trends Traits of Teen Mothers Many are Many grew up Likely as children to have been Likely exposed to Likely exposed to NB we do NOT have good data on the traits of girls who have abortions Teenage Mothers Teen mothers at risk for of school or being poorly educated early Children of Teenage Mothers At increased risk for Prematurity and Watch the video and respond to the questions http www youtube com watch v rb4u46f9fS8 feature chann el Motor Performance in Adulthood Athletic skills peak between ages 20 and 35 gradually or seventies then Continued keep more vital capacity


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