WVSU PSYC 151 - Study guide EXAM 3 (5 pages)

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Study guide EXAM 3



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Study guide EXAM 3

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5
School:
West Virginia State University
Course:
Psyc 151 - General Psychology
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Exam 3 CHILDHOOD EARLY AND MIDDLE What are the typical patterns of growth Early childhood 2 5 inches per year Middle childhood Slow consistent growth What are typical sex differences Boys have more muscle cells girls have more Fat cells BRAIN DEVELOPMENT What changes are occurring in the brain during childhood Early Rapid prefrontal cortex growth increase in brain surface Middle Pruning and growth start balancing each other out Does the volume of the brain change Yes by 95 Does the functioning of the brain change How so Yes by speed and efficiency What areas of the brain are developing at these ages Left hemisphere prefrontal cortex Describe synaptic pruning Elimination of neurons and synaptic connections to increase efficiency of Neuronal transmissions How does brain development relate to attention Prefrontal increases which contributes to attention Give examples of early and middle childhood of Gross motor development Early Large muscle skills being used Helping to create physical ability Middle Reaction building ability force Fine motor development Early Particular motor skills such as Blocks moving onto legs Middle Writing Drawing What are examples of learning Disabilities Dyslexia Reading Dysgraphia Writing Dyscalculia Math Describe common features of ADHD Causes Genetics brain damage during prenatal low birth weight drinking smoking during pregnancy Behaviors inattention hyperactivity impulsivity Differences in brain development Delayed peak in the thickness of the Cerebral Cortex What are the autism spectrum disorders Deficiencies in social relationships abnormalities in communication Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget Compare and contrast Preoperational and Concrete Operational Stages Preoperational 2 to 5 7 years One dimension Concrete 5 7 to 12 years Multidimensional Give examples of preoperational thought in regards to Symbolic Function Can mentally represent and object that is not present Draw language and play Causality Identity and Category Egocentrism Focus on one s own point of view inability to take another person s perspective Contrast concepts Centration De centration Focus on one aspect of a situation while ignoring other aspects Irreversibility not being able to mentally undo what they done before Reversibility Being able to mentally undo what they had done before usually Physically Give Examples of concrete operational thinking in regards to Seriation the ability to order stimuli to sort by color or type Transitive Inference the ability to combine relations to understand certain conclusions if then Class Inclusion Ability to include objects correctly within Multiple classifications What cognitive ability is still limited during the concrete operational stage Abstract concepts are still difficult Vygotsky Define and give an example zone of proximal development Range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance scaffolding Changing the level of support Information Processing Theory define Attention the focusing of cognitive resources Sustained attention Focused and extended engagement with an object event Executive Functioning planning self monitoring problem solving What are some developmental changes in Attention Memory short term storage of info while actively processed Metamemory Understanding memory Memory strategies Rehearsal Organization Elaboration Give an example of 3 types of childhood memory Generic Produces scripts experiences that help to organize and predict Episodic clear memories of unique events Autobiographical Distinct experiences of one s own history Theory of mind see activity 3 2 What is it Involves the ability to infer the existence of mental states and use them as an explanatory device for human behavior When do most children achieve theory of mind Ages 4 to 5 Define the following terms with an example Fast mapping Hypothesized mental process where a new concept is learned Overextensions Call all men dad Overregularities If you have 2 of something you add S Feet and foots Define the following terms Syntax How things are placed properly in a sentence Semantics Using correct words for what your meaning Pragmatics Speak to your peers different than your professor known behavior Metalinguistic awareness the ability to see language as a code and separate it from its symbolic meaning INTELLIGENCE What are the arguments for and against the use of IQ tests Favor Reliability and scores are good predictors Criticisms children who do not test well the tests do not measure native ability Describe the Wechsler scales Verbal and non verbal tests What kinds of scores do they generate IQ scores What is Stenberg s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Activity 3 3 Analytic Intelligence ability to analyze judge evaluate compare and contrast Tend to be favored in conventional schooling Creative Intelligence ability to create design invent originate and imagine May not conform to expectations about how assignments should be done Practical Intelligence the ability to use apply implement and put ideas into practice Often do no relate well to the demands of school but do well outside of the classroom s walls showing excellent social skills and good common sense SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Erikson What are the two stages of Psychosocial Development that occur within childhood Initiative Eager to try new things Development of conscience Goal setting Guilt Overly strict conscience Related to excessive threats criticism punishment Industry Developing a sense of competence Inferiority lack of self confidence Self concept 5 and under How does the younger child reconcile the ideal self with the Real self Traits such as hair color or things you are good at not what you are bad at They only say what they are good at Give an example of each of the following terms Single Representations one dimensional characteristics without logical connections Representational Mappings Logical connections between parts of self image I am good at reading but bad at math Making multidimensional self explanations Representational Systems Multi directional integrated I am good at this okay at this and bad at this Making difference explanations for multiple things What does Emotional Regulation mean Why is it so important Helps the child to manage demands and conflicts with others MORAL DEVELOPMENT What are Kohlberg s stages of Moral Development Give examples of each


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