WVSU PSYC 151 - OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Lecture 6.Prenatal Development (31 pages)

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OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Lecture 6.Prenatal Development



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OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Lecture 6.Prenatal Development

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Pages:
31
School:
West Virginia State University
Course:
Psyc 151 - General Psychology
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Prenatal Development Announcements Due dates Exam 1 next Wednesday Turn in HW for Monday on Monday Outline Prenatal Development Periods of Prenatal development Prenatal assessments Hazards to prenatal development Birth Low birth weight and preterm infants Post partum care http www youtube com watch v fKyljukBE70 Min 2 6 Periods of Prenatal Development Period Length Zygote Embryo Fetus Key Events Fertilization 2 weeks Implantation Start of placenta Arms legs face organs 6 weeks muscles all develop Heart begins beating 30 weeks Growth and finishing Developmental rules Cephalocaudal development Head to tail Proximodistal development near to far Germinal Stage Development Embryonic Stage Characteristics Approximately 2 to 8 weeks Cell differentiation production migration Organogensis the beginning of organs Respiratory Digestive Nervous Risk of spontaneous abortion or miscarriage greatest Embryo life support Amnion water sac Chorion becomes lining of placenta Placenta interchange point both mom s baby s tissue meet but don t directly mix Umbilical cord baby s veins arteries belly button mammals stem cells Sex differentiation 6th to 8th week after conception Y Chromosome produces testosterone Development During Fetal Stage 8 weeks to birth Organs and body become more complex Development of toenails eyelids Appearance of bone Development of memory A baby knows its mother s voice and language DeCasper Spence 1986 The Brain At birth babies have approximately 100 billion neurons 1 2 trimesters the basic structure of the brain is assembled 3 trimester 2 years of postnatal life connectivity and functioning of neurons develops Brain development Neural tube 18 24 days Anencephaly spina bifida if neural tube doesn t close Neurogenesis 5 weeks up to 200 000 neurons formed per minute Neuronal migration and connectivity continues Prenatal Assessment and Intervention Ultrasound Amniocentesis Fetal MRI Infertility and Reproductive Technologies 10 15 of couples in US deal with infertility 2 million couples Cause could be due to woman or man Treatments Surgery Hormones IVF 40 000 per year Hazards to Prenatal Development Teratogen Drugs Incompatible blood types Environmental pollutants Infectious diseases Maternal stress advanced maternal and paternal age Critical Periods Critical periods More Hazards to Prenatal Development Maternal diet and nutrition Mother is overweight Folic acid low levels High mercury levels careful eating too much fish Stress Mother s Age Safest age 16 to 35 years old Younger or older women more high risk Younger than 16 Older than 35 FREQUENCY OF DOWN SYNDROME PER 1000 Relationship Between Maternal Age and the Incidence of Down Syndrome 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 15 20 25 30 35 40 MATERNAL AGE YEARS 45 50 Mother s Emotional Condition Stress hormones may cross the placenta Short duration Minor stress Chronic severe stress Paternal Factors Environmental hazards Abnormal sperm Miscarriage or diseases Heavy smokers second hand smoke Increased risk of early miscarriage The Birth Process The Birth Process first stage second stage third stage Methods of childbirth In the USA 99 percent of births are in hospitals Fathers Partners usually present Midwifery 8 of births Methods Natural Medicated Water birth massage acupuncture Cesarean 34 of births in US Neonate Abilities Apgar Scale Sign range 0 to 10 healthy average 7 0 1 2 Appearance Blue Pale Body Pink Limbs Blue All Pink Pulse Absent Slow 100 Rapid Grimace None Grimace Coughing Crying Activity Limp Weak Strong Respiration Absent Irregular slow Good Crying Size and Appearance of Newborns Average newborn is 20 inches long 7 5 pounds Fontanels Lanugo Vernix caseosa Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants Low birth weight less than 5 pounds at birth Preterm 3 weeks before full term Small for date birth weight is below normal for gestation Immediate Treatment for Prematurity Intravenous feeding Surfactant Isolette controlled environment like an incubator Massage gentle handling Kangaroo care Post partum Depression Post partum emotions 70 blues 10 depression and dysfunction Post partum Depression Outcomes Treatment Father s role Prep for exam TLC where s that 1105 LSB


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