WVSU PSYC 151 - OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Lecture 4.Research Methods-4 (31 pages)

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OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Lecture 4.Research Methods-4



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OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Lecture 4.Research Methods-4

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Pages:
31
School:
West Virginia State University
Course:
Psyc 151 - General Psychology

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Research Methods Announcements Bring your clicker and course guide to class Due dates Outline Scientific Method Research Methods Research Designs Ethics Scientific Study of Human Development Goals 1 Understand how and why people change examples 2 Understand how and why people stay the same Scientific Method 1 2 3 4 Focus on a topic Formulate a hypothesis Test the hypothesis via research designs Collect and analyze data data collection methods vary 5 Draw conclusions 6 Make results available Research Methods overview Descriptive Research Naturalistic Observation Surveys questionnaires Interviews Case Studies Standardized tests Physiological measures Descriptive research Naturalistic Observation Directly observe people in their natural environments Live or taped Try not to disrupt behavior Discover patterns in behavior but can t infer cause Descriptive research Surveys Questionnaires Examples Self esteem Self disclosure Descriptive Research Interviews Structured Interview Questions never vary Semi structured Interview Questions change depending on answers Piaget Kohlberg Research Methods Case studies Standardized tests Physiological measures Research Methods Correlational Research Describes strength and direction of relationship between 2 variables Correlation Coefficient r Ranges from 1 and 1 Positive Negative 0 no relationship Less Less More Exposure to violent TV ZERO CORRELATION More More Crimes Acts of aggression More NEGATIVE CORRELATION Illnesses POSITIVE CORRELATION Less Less Low High Optimism scores New Full Phases of the moon Correlation Causation As ice cream sales increase the rate of drowning deaths increases sharply Therefore ice cream causes drowning Sleeping with one s shoes on is strongly correlated with waking up with a headache Therefore sleeping with one s shoes on causes headache Shaving habits and risk of stroke Shaving less than once a day increases risk of stroke by 70 http news bbc co uk 2 hi health 2729457 stm Experimental Method Groups Experimental Control Randomization Random Selection Random Assignment Groups are the same before treatment Only thing that changes is the treatment Experimental Method Variables Behavior and events that we try to define Something that changes or varies Independent Variable Dependent Variable Question Research does breast feeding cause babies to be healthier Experimental Method Developmental Research Designs Overview 1 Cross Sectional 2 Longitudinal Prospective 3 Sequential Cross sectional Design Assess Individuals of different ages all at roughly the same time Advantage Practical Disadvantage Cohort Effect Differences between age groups is due to generation issues not age differences Cross sectional Design what does this data describe Age Peer Pressure Index average score 4 0 8 12 12 30 16 76 20 35 24 30 Cross sectional Design what does this data describe Age Peer Pressure Index average score 4 0 8 12 12 30 16 76 20 35 24 30 Cross sectional DesignCohort Effect Age Technology IQ average



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