WVSU PSYC 151 - OUTLINE 2015-16 241 Lecture 9.Infant Psychosocial Development(1) (31 pages)

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OUTLINE 2015-16 241 Lecture 9.Infant Psychosocial Development(1)



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OUTLINE 2015-16 241 Lecture 9.Infant Psychosocial Development(1)

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Pages:
31
School:
West Virginia State University
Course:
Psyc 151 - General Psychology
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Infant Psychosocial Development Announcements and Reminders Outline Emotional and personality development Social development and attachment Contexts of caregiving What Are Emotions Emotion feeling or affect In infancy communication is central part of emotion Classifying Emotions Positive Negative Emotions Biological and Environmental Influences Biological Influences Universal Environmental Influences Display rules Shiraev Levy 2010 Early Emotions Crying Babies have at least three types of cries Basic cry Anger cry Pain cry Development Psyc in Real Life Should Parents Respond to an Infant s Cries Many developmentalists recommend that parents soothe a crying infant especially in the first year This reaction should help infants develop a sense of trust and secure attachment to the caregiver Early Emotions In the first six months 6 basic emotions surprise interest joy anger sadness fear and disgust By the second year self conscious or other conscious emotions jealousy empathy embarrassment pride shame and guilt Early Emotions Smiling Reflexive smile Social smile Early Emotions Fear Appears at 6 mos Peaks at 18 mos Types of fear Stranger anxiety peaks at 6 9 mos Separation protest peaks around 1315 mos Social Referencing Social referencing reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation Emotional Regulation Influences on emotional regulation Soothing infant develop a sense of trust and secure attachment to the caregiver Temperament Definition Individual differences in emotional motor and attentional reactivity and self regulation Three broad categories Chess Thomas 1977 Easy children Difficult children Slow to warm up children Temperament Kagan Concept of Behavioral Inhibition Effortful Control Self Regulation Rothbart and Bates classification Extraversion surgency Negative affectivity Effortful control Temperament Goodness of fit Fit between infant temperament and parent behavior toward and with the infant Sensitive responsiveness Parents ability to react to the specific temperament needs of their children Personality Development Personality the enduring personal characteristics of individuals Erikson First year trust versus mistrust Importance of Sensitive responsive and consistent care Personality Development Development of self recognition 5 8 months Does not recognize self in mirror 9 12 months Recognizes other people items in mirror 15 18 months Recognizes self in mirror Sense of self lipstick on nose test Personality Development gaining a sense of self Self concept the image of ourselves Personal agency Self efficacy Personality Development gaining a sense of self Erikson Second year Autonomy vs Shame and doubt Parents who are controlling over protective Attachment Definition a close emotional bond between two people Early behavioral theory Infants were attached to their mothers because the mothers fed them VIDEOS Classic Harlow Monkey Experiments Theories of Attachment Bowlby internal working model of attachment An internal model of the caregiver Mary Ainsworth 1979 created the Strange Situation Empirical assessment of the quality of attachment Attachment Secure Base Behavior Attachment figure base of safety for exploration Balancing two motivational systems Exploratory system Attachment system Goal is to coordinate the two systems Strange Situation Ainsworth Observe child s use of attachment system Separation reunion Stranger anxiety stress Key Question Does child cope with stress by using mother for security Qualities of Attachment Secure Use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment Insecure avoidant Avoiding the caregiver Insecure resistant Cling to the caregiver then resist the caregiver by fighting against the closeness Insecure disorganized Being disorganized and disoriented How do we study Attachment Ainsworth s Strange Situation Caregiving Styles and Attachment Maternal sensitivity linked to secure attachment Caregivers of insecurely attached infants tend to be Rejecting Inconsistent Abusive Long Term Effects of Attachment Development of independence Child s expectations about social relationships Level of curiosity and self confidence Preparation for adult intimacy Reciprocal Socialization Socialization that is bidirectional Scaffolding infant experiences turn taking with the parents parental behavior supports children s efforts positive reciprocal framework for interaction Contexts of Caregiving Parents Mothers spend more time in caregiving than do fathers Mothers managerial role Fathers play centered Fathers can act sensitively and responsively Father s presence in a child s life is beneficial Contexts of Caregiving Research on Day Care Infants are not harmed by and are sometimes helped by good day care programs Contexts of Caregiving The four essential characteristics of highquality day care 1 Adequate attention to each infant 2 Encouragement of sensorimotor exploration and language development 3 Attention to health and safety 4 Well trained and professional caregivers


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