WVSU PSYC 151 - OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Lecture 5.Biological Beginnings (26 pages)

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OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Lecture 5.Biological Beginnings



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OUTLINE 2016-17 241 Lecture 5.Biological Beginnings

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Pages:
26
School:
West Virginia State University
Course:
Psyc 151 - General Psychology
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Biological Beginnings Announcements Due dates Outline Genetic foundations of development The interaction of heredity and environment The nature nurture debate Genetic Foundations Chromosomes Genes DNA Genetic Foundations Humans have approx 20 000 genes Many genes collaborate The environment affects the activity of genes Human Genome Project 2012 Cell division Mitosis Two new cells are formed each containing the same DNA as the original cell Meiosis Eggs and sperm or gametes are formed Each has only of the genetic material of the parent cell Genetic Foundations Fertilization Zygote Variability of genes Genotype and Phenotype Genotype all of a person s genetic material Phenotype observable characteristics Dominant and Recessive Inheritance Dominant heterozygosity with a dominant gene Recessive homozygosity with no dominant gene Dominant Recessive Inheritance Dominant Recessive Traits Dominant Recessive Traits Dominant Recessive Traits Incomplete Dominance and Polygenetic Inheritance Incomplete Dominance Polygenic Inheritance Both alleles of a single gene are expressed Many genes combine to influence a trait Genetic Abnormalities Chromosomal Abnormalities Abnormalities caused by not having the typical set of 23 chromosomes See figure 2 4 in textbook Gene linked Abnormalities Abnormalities caused by defective genes See figure 2 5 in textbook Behavior Genetics Heritability Statistical estimate of heritable influence on trait variance in a population Ranges from 0 to 1 00 Heritability Index Measuring Heritability Family Studies The degree to which biological relatives share traits Adoption Studies The degree to which adopted children resemble biological relatives or adopted family members Twin Studies Compares the degree to which monozygotic and dizygotic twins resemble each other for a trait Heredity and the Environment Working together Reaction range Potential variation in a trait Canalization Heritable restrictions on the range of trait development The Concept of Range of Reaction for Intellectual Performance child A child B child C Reaction Range Intellectual Performance IQ High Average Low Restricted Average Type of Environment Enriched Bi directionality of genes and environment Genotype x Environment G x E Correlations 3 ways the environment reflects or reinforces genetic differences Passive Reactive or Evocative Active or Niche Picking The Epigenetic View The bidirectional interchange between heredity and the environment causes development Gottlieb Wahlsten Lickliter 2006 Gene X Environment G x E Interaction The interaction of a specific measured variation in DNA and a specific measured aspect of the environment Gene by environment interactions 9 Genotype by environment interaction 8 Depression 7 6 5 GENE A 4 GENE B 3 2 1 0 non stressful environment stressful environment Activity Traits Influenced by Heredity Environment VIDEO Environmental and genetic influences on intelligence http www youtube com watch v vLDvhWF3qis


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