WVSU PSYC 151 - OUTLINE 2015-16 241 Lecture 7.Infant physcial development(1) (33 pages)

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OUTLINE 2015-16 241 Lecture 7.Infant physcial development(1)



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OUTLINE 2015-16 241 Lecture 7.Infant physcial development(1)

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Pages:
33
School:
West Virginia State University
Course:
Psyc 151 - General Psychology
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Infancy Physical Development Announcements Outline Physical growth and development during infancy Motor development Sensation and perception during infancy Patterns of Growth Cephalocaudal Proximodistal Height and Weight in Infancy Average Weight Typical Length Growth rate By 2 years of age The First Year First Weeks Lose 5 to 7 percent of their body weight First Year 4 months 2X birth weight 1 year 3X birth weight The Brain Contains tens of billions of nerve cells at birth Cerebral cortex Two hemispheres Four main lobes in each hemisphere frontal lobes occipital lobes temporal lobes parietal lobes Lateralization specialization of function in one hemisphere or the other The Brain Changes in neurons Myelination Connectivity increases Neural Development Nature and Experience Nurture Pruning Neurons that remain organized strengthened Use it or lose it principle KEY Early experiences are extremely important Brain development during infancy Increase followed by decrease in synaptic density Developmental Psych in Real Life Shaken Baby Syndrome or Abusive Head Trauma What is it Shaking the baby even for only 5 10 seconds can cause serious injury Shaking baby causes whiplash like concussion Most common around 4 months of age when crying is at peak Incidence 1 300 children nearly all infants suffered severe or fatal abusive head trauma Keenen et al 2004 Developmental Psych in real life Shaken Baby Syndrome or Abusive Head Trauma Result If not fatal can result in mental retardation paralysis retinal damage learning disorders seizures Babies most vulnerable due to large head weak neck muscles soft plates in head Prevention Carry and talk to baby Put baby down and take a break Understand causes of crying Keenen et al 2004 Sleep Typical newborns Common Infant sleep problem REM sleep 3 13 Sleep Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS Occurs when an infant stops breathing usually at night Suddenly dies without an apparent cause 3 14 SIDS Findings Occurs mostly in infants with abnormal brain stem functioning involving serotonin Factors associated with higher SIDS rates Low birth weight Ethnic Differences Second hand smoke Co sleeping Don t use a pacifier when sleeping Sleep in a room without a fan 3 15 SIDS recommendations Nutrition Breastfeeding Breast milk almost always the best food Recommendation breastfeed for 6 months Bottle Feeding Formula iron fortified Required if mother Has infectious illness Is taking drugs or meds that could harm infant Does NOT reduce emotional bonding between mother and baby Breast feeding http vad2 mhhe com CAP 1708 640x480 CAP m pg Nutritional Needs Infants should eat 50 calories per day for each pound they weigh Many U S parents are feeding their 4 to 24month old babies too few fruits and vegetables and too much junk food c 2012 The McGraw Hill Companies Inc What is most common vegetable eaten in infancy Motor Development Reflexes Gross motor skills Fine motor skills 3 20 Dynamic Systems Theory Perception and action tied together Motor skills develop Changing nervous system Infant s movements Infant s goals to reach Environmental support Reflexes Biologically based behaviors Survival reflexes Primitive Reflexes Survival reflexes Breathing Rooting Sucking Pupillary Blink Primitive reflexes Moro Startle reflex Palmer Plantar Primitive Reflexes Babinski Stepping Swimming Tonic neck Gross Motor Skills Skills that involve large muscle activities Sitting with support Sitting without support Pull themselves up Stand alone Gross Motor Development in the Second Year Toddlers 13 18 months 18 24 months Fine Motor Skills Finger dexterity Pincer grip 0 2 years infants refine how they reach and grasp Perceptual motor coupling coordinated grasping Role of Experience Studying the Infant s Perception Visual Preference Method Orienting response Habituation Dishabituation Perception of Pattern and Depth Preference for face Preference for bull s eye target Preference for blackand white stripes rather than circle Developing Senses Vision Hearing Smell Taste Infant responses to tastes SWEET SOUR BITTER Visual Cliff Depth perception visual cliff 3 4 months Infants develop the ability to use binocular cues to perceive depth Gibson Walk 1960


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