WVSU PSYC 151 - PSYC 241 EXAM 2 (6 pages)

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PSYC 241 EXAM 2



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PSYC 241 EXAM 2

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Pages:
6
School:
West Virginia State University
Course:
Psyc 151 - General Psychology
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REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM 2 Infancy PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Define the two basic principles of Physical Development Cephalocaudal development Head to tail growth physical and functional Proximodistal development Near to far Center of the body to the outer develops first Example Waving arm before writing with fingers What is the average weight and length for babies born in the U S 7 pounds 20 inches What is the averages of growth during infancy An inch a month What does lateralization refer to Specialization of function in one of the hemisphere of the brain or the other Left or right side What are some basic changes that occur in the brain during the first 2 years Hearing Vision and the prefrontal cortex all increase Why are infants so vulnerable when shaken Shaken Baby Syndrome Infants are so vulnerable due to a large head weak muscles and soft plates in the head What can an adult do to avoid acting abusively towards a baby Carry and talk to the baby Put the baby down and take a break understand causes of crying How is a baby s sleep different from an adult s Baby s will sleep on and off throughout the day compared to adults were they will sleep one part of the day and awake the other Amount of sleep 14 hours a day 2 or 3 naps a day Amount of REM sleep Babies have more REM sleep than adults due to the brain developing during the early months which is necessary What is SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome What can parents do to lower the risks Have the baby sleep in a crib and nothing else with no fan and nothing that can cover its mouth or nose Breast feeding vs bottle feeding Breast Breast feeding will be better for the child s health due to immunities passed down Also could lower SIDS What are the nutritional needs of infants 50 calories per day for each pound that they weigh What does the typical infant diet lack Fruits and vegetables What are some of the survival reflexes that babies are born with Life value Breathing rooting Baby starts sucking when its check or mouth is touched Sucking Pupillary Dilate and contract of pupils and blink Keep dust dirt out of its eyes What are some of the primitive reflexes that babies are with Non as important Moro Baby stretches out when you let go Palmer You put your palms out and the baby will grab them Plantar Stroking the toes will make them curl Babinski Hell to toe it ll open the toes Stepping Holding the baby up and it ll walk Swimming Can swim they re first born Tonic neck Point it to one side it ll reach its arm and leg out to it Give an example of both Gross Motor Skills skills that involve large muscle activities and Fine Motor Skills Finger dexterity Gross sitting without support Fine eating by picking up food with finger tips Basic milestones 0 2 Infants refine how they reach and gasp What is perceptual motor coupling Coordinated grasping At birth describe an infant s Hearing Before birth they can hear Taste Can taste before birth Smell Can smell at birth Vision Develops till about a year What is the Visual Cliff and what does it examine Depth perception 3 4 months infants develop the ability to use binocular cues to perceive depth COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The behavioral approach Give an example of classical conditioning infancy a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired Shots and the doctor Operant conditioning Reward and punishment Rovee Collier research mobile and string Showed that babies can remember due to tying a string to a Mobile have the baby kick and watch it move remove the string and the baby still does it What is joint attention and how is it involved in socialization Focusing on the same object or event by both people Baby and adult this helps with language and attachment At what age can infants imitate others A couple week s old At what age can infants show deferred imitation imitating after a delay 9 months Implicit memory Unconscious remembering Example bit by a dog and then fearing dogs for the rest of your life but have no idea why Explicit memory Conscious remembering Study for a test and remember the answers to questions What is childhood amnesia Can t remember events due to not being able to label memories Piagetian terms Schemes Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge Organization Grouping of isolated behaviors how to catch and thoughts into a higher order system Adaptation Adapt to your environment Assimilation We take in new information or experiences and incorporate them into our existing ideas Accommodation New information or experiences cause you to modify your existing schemes Disequilibrium Conflict with set Schemes Equilibration Organized Schemes Mechanism by which children shift from one stage of thought to the next What does the Sensorimotor stage cover 0 2 Years Infants discover the relationship between their bodies and the environment What is the goal of this stage To learn their body What is the major accomplishment Physical ability walking standing crawling What is the A not B error Infants tendency to reach where an object was located last rather than where the was last hidden How early do babies REALLY show understanding of object permanence 8 12 months LANGUAGE What are the key milestones in Language development in the first year Crying At birth Cooing laughing 6 weeks Babbling 6 months Gestures 9 12 months When do infants typically say their first words 10 15 months When is the vocabulary spurt 18 24 months What is telegraphic speech Short precise words Me up What are example of overextension and underextension in an infant s language Over dada point to every male Under Only using it for certain things when it could be used for more What is the behavioral explanation of language development Language is acquired through reinforcement What is Noam Chomsky s explanation of language development Humans are biologically prewired to learn language What is child directed speech Speaking baby talk to infant SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT What are 3 types of cries Basic Hunger and Rhythmic with brief rest between cries Anger Louder and more intense than basic cry Pain cry Longer sudden breath held What is considered to be the best way to deal with a crying infant Soothe them What are the early types of smiles Reflexive Random not stimuli Social Familiar face or stimuli pet When does fear begin to show 6 months Peaks at 18 months What is stranger anxiety Nervous when strangers are around Appears at 6 9 months What is Separation protest Uncomforted when mom or dad


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