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TAMU ARTS 149 - New Kingdom

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ARTS 149 1st Edition Lecture 9Egypt Art: Introduction to New KingdomI. New Kingdom (ca. 1,550 – 1,070 BCE)a. Period of wealth and powerb. Period of warrior kingsi. Conquered land from other areasii. Made them more wealthy c. New trade was established with other civilizations i. i.e. asiad. Capital was Thebes e. God was either Amen or Amen-Raf. Valley of Kingsi. Located on west side of Nile ii. Location of burial for pharaohs of New Kingdom beginning with Thutmose Iiii. Was located in a desolate, remote area to prevent thieves iv. Catacombs were easily concealed in land, but during Egyptian civil war much was stolen from these burialsv. What was left of tombs (mummies and some riches and artifacts) were then relocated where we found them thousands of years laterII. Hatshepsut a. Ruler of 18th Dynasty during the New Kingdomb. She was daughter of Thutmose I and was the only child of his to survive c. She was married to Thutmose II, technically her half-brotheri. Thutmose III was a weak king and she ended up helping him rule d. When her son, Thutmose III, was too young to rule, she ruled for him for 20 years as a strong pharaoh e. Egyptian people loved her and so no one had a problem with her being a female pharaoh f. Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple (ca. 1,473 – 1,458 BCE)i. Thutmose III was built next to hersii. She planned to have it built also next to Mentuhotep II in order to legitimize her ruleiii. Two chapels were built into her complex, to Hathor and Anubis iv. There were 3 colonnade terraces located in her complex1. Within these colonnade terraces were several statues of her depicted as a SphinxThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.v. There were many gardens filled with plants and an irrigation systemg. Hatshepsut with Offering Jars (ca. 1,473 – 1,458 BCE) i. Sculpture carved in red granite and found in her mortuary templeii. She is shown kneeling before the Sun Godiii. She is depicted as a male pharaoh with headdress, false beardiv. This sculpture had to be remodeled because Thutmose III destroyed it during his reignh. Senmut with Princess (ca. 1,470 – 1,460 BCE)i. Found in Thebes, Egyptii. Carved into graniteiii. Considered a block sculpture iv. It was polished and carved with hieroglyphs v. Senmut1. He was Hatshepsut’s Royal Architect and tutor of her daughter a. He designed her mortuary complex2. He was also a commoner and she brought him up to these important, royal positions3. He was also buried near her and it is thought they him and Hatshepsut were having an affairIII. New Kingdom Paintings a. Fowling Scene found in Tomb of Nebamun (ca, 1,400 – 1,350 BCE)i. Thebes, Egypt ii. Considered to be a fresco-secco (meaning it was painted on dry plaster)1. This technique does not last as long as when it is painted on wet plaster, but more details can be put into fresco-seccoiii. Similarities to Old kingdom paintings1. Nebamun is seen in typical side/profile view and in stride2. He is also seen with naturalistic animals iv. Differences from Old kingdom1. He is seen in a very intimate setting with his wife, daughter surrounding him 2. Much more informal than Old Kingdomb. Musicians and Dancers (ca. 1,400 – 1,350 BCE)i. A fresco found in tomb of Nebamunii. Thebes, Egyptiii. 4 noble women are seen with two dancers and wine glasses for celebrationiv. The Noble Women1. 2 of them face forward which is very different than other Egyptian art of people seen a. Typically seen in profilev. Dancers1. They are shown actually dancing and animated in motion (even their hair is seen to be in motion)2. This animation and depiction of motion is a new technique seen in Egyptian artIV. Amarna Style a. Brought in by Amenhotep IV who also changed religion to monotheistic of Amen (pictured as solar disk)b. Qualities of Amarnai. Effeminate or androgynous figuresii. Curving contours iii. Elongated formsiv. Individuality v. Intimate subject matterc. Akhenaton from temple of Amen-Re (ca. 1,353 – 1,335 BCE)i. Sandstone Sculpture ii. New Amarna Style seen in 1. Curvilinear, elongated lines2. The waist is curved and fleshy 3. He looks feminine with large lips, large ears and long, narrow nose4. The sculpture had elongated proportions iii. Similar to Old Kingdom Style in that the pharaoh has the double crown, false beard and is facing usd. Nefertiti (ca. 1,353 – 1,335 BCE)i. Meaning “beautiful one is here”ii. She was a queen who served as a priest iii. Exaggeration is seen and idealization is also seeniv. She has elongated, heavy crownv. Heavy lidded eyes and long/slender necke. Tiye (ca. 1,353 – 1,335 BCE)i. Gurob, Egyptii. Made of wood with lapis lazuli and gold earringsiii. She had a headdress made of linen and plaster that covers an original head piece made of gold and silveriv. We can see that she is not idealized 1. Wrinkle and lines in her face 2. She is frowningv. More individualized like seen in Amarna Style f. Head of a Princessi. The elongated head and neck, large ears, and heavily lidded eyes are signs of Amarna style ii. Made of Brownish yellow quartziteiii. Found in workshopg. Statuette of Akhenaton with Female Figurei. Carved of limestone ii. This is an example of an intimate scene iii. This expression of a kiss with female figure (intimate) is unusual for Egyptian arth. Akhenaten, Nefertiti and 3 Daughtersi. Carved into limestone ii. The scene is of a pavilion with the family in presence of solar disk, sun godiii. Rays of sun disk represent breath of lifeiv. King and wife are seen in an informal way, playing with their children in a naturalistic way1. This intimate, naturalistic scene is a sign of Amarna styleV. King Tutankhamun a. Son of Akhenaten b. Rule from the age of 9 to 19 c. Also called the “boy king”d. He changed the religion back to the typical Amen religion e. He had malaria and an infected leg which were expected to be the reason for his deathf. Restores priests power and damage that had occurred during his father’s reigni. He repaired Amen statues and templesg. Tut’s Tombi. Discovered in 1922ii. Very difficult to find and he was found in 3 coffinsiii. Inner-most coffin 1. Found in Thebes, Egypt 2. Made of Gold, enamel and semiprecious stones3. Hieroglyphs were written on it 4. Typical headdress, cobra and beard are present5. Some carry-over of Amarna style a. His full lipsb. Thin nosec. Pierced earlobesiv. Death Mask1. Solid


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